13

Both ず and ぬ came from the archaic negator ず in Heian period. The ず had conjugations ず (未然), ず (連用), ず (終止), ぬ (連体) and ね (仮定), as every Japanese learns in high school today. The ぬ was originally the 連体形 (noun modifying form) of ず. After that, spoken Japanese lost the distinction between 連体形 and 終止形 in almost all cases. So, now we use ぬ or its variant ん as ...


9

"Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"?" We call it 「[文語体]{ぶんごたい}」 or 「文語[調]{ちょう}」("Literary style") as opposed to 「[口語体]{こうごたい}」 or 「口語調」 ("Colloquial style"). "Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name for the dialect used by Kuchiki ...


7

The conjugation of 〜ぬ (or, more properly, 〜ず) is as follows in classical Japanese: Predicative form (終止形): 〜ず Attributive form (連体形): 〜ぬ Adverbial form (連用形): 〜ず Realis form (已然形): 〜ね As you can see, it is somewhat defective; the missing conjugations are sometimes supplemented by the corresponding forms of 〜ざる (more properly, 〜ざり). In modern western ...


7

The ぬ is a classical form of ない. While it's not often used you will probably still encounter it in some situations (proverbs are a great example). In this situtation 詰まぬ=詰まない meaning "not being mated" so a translation for the proverb may be: With 3 knights, there's always a mate (no such thing as being unmatable?)


7

what is the original form The verb する. and how does it become せず? ず is an auxiliary verb ([助動詞]{じょどうし}) which attaches to the [未然形]{みぜんけい} of the verb. せ is one 未然形 of する and is the one which ず attaches to.


5

「帰{かえ}らん」=「帰らない」 = "not / will not return (home)" 「帰れん」=「帰れない」 = "cannot / will not be able to return (home)" The latter is in the negative potential form. This 「ん」 has been discussed many times before; hence, just a short answer.


5

しなければならず literally means "have to do~~ and..." "must do~~ and..." The ず is the continuative form (連用形) of the classical negative auxiliary ぬ, which corresponds to the negative auxiliary ない in modern Japanese. Basically: しなければならぬ (しなければならない in modern Japanese) ← terminal form (終止形) しなければならず (しなければならなく(て)* in modern Japanese) ← continuative form (連用形) *...


4

ずに is a conjunctive negative form for verbs which comes from the classical Japanese auxiliary verb ず (which is still used in limited occasions in modern Japanese). This ず was/is added to the end of the 未然形 of a verb and is the 基本形 (and 終止形 and 連用形) of the old negative 'tense'. There are plenty of websites dealing with this, so have a look if you're ...


3

-zu is a negative particle. It is equivalent to the negative -nai. kusarasezu ni means "without letting [it, the food] rot".


3

Technically ぬ is preferred when modifying a nominal (attributive/連体形) and ず elsewhere (fundamentally predicative/終止形). Nowadays under the merger of these two forms in regular verbs and adjectives, using ぬ to end a sentence seems to have become acceptable as well, but you still don't use ず with nouns or ぬ with adverbial conjunctions (*ぬに/*ぬして), I suppose.


2

足{た}る in the phrases you mention refers to "being enough, being sufficient (to do something, to be something)". 取るに足らない could be understood literally as "insufficient" (足らない) "to / for taking" (取るに) → by extension, "not worth picking up → not worth the bother, insignificant". Meanwhile, 百にも足らぬ would be "insufficient" (足らぬ) "to / for even a hundred" (百にも) → ...


2

ず is actually a 助動詞 to make a verb negative. It originates in classical Japanese. In earlier times, 知らず was written as 不知 (same as in classical Chinese) literally, not+know. Frequently used is 残らず、知らず、せず(する)


2

猿は人間に毛が三筋足りぬ、is also said 毛が三本足りぬ. I think 三本足りぬ is more popular than 三筋足りぬ as a saying today.  Both '三筋' and '三本' mean three pieces (or threads) of hair. It means monkeys resemble men, but they have three pieces short of hair as compared with men, meaning monkeys are inferior to men. It is an interesting concept and simile that not the size of brain or ...


1

In most cases 'minu' translates to 'unseen'. The full sentence まだ見ぬ君へ続く can be roughly translated to "(It) still continues unseen to you"


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