8 votes

せず - What does it come from?

what is the original form The verb する. and how does it become せず? ず is an auxiliary verb ([助動詞]{じょどうし}) which attaches to the [未然形]{みぜんけい} of the verb. せ is one 未然形 of する and is the one which ず ...
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7 votes
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じ/ず conversion in 人は動かじ

じ(まじ) is an auxiliary verb that means will not (as opposed to ず meaning not). So 動かじ means (People) will not move/take actions.
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4 votes

When does ない become ぬ?

Technically ぬ is preferred when modifying a nominal (attributive/連体形) and ず elsewhere (fundamentally predicative/終止形). Nowadays under the merger of these two forms in regular verbs and adjectives, ...
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  • 410
4 votes

Does the negative ずに form have a connective function like the te form does?

ずに is a conjunctive negative form for verbs which comes from the classical Japanese auxiliary verb ず (which is still used in limited occasions in modern Japanese). This ず was/is added to the end of ...
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  • 3,054
4 votes
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The meaning of しなければならず in this article

しなければならず literally means "have to do~~ and..." "must do~~ and..." The ず is the continuative form (連用形) of the classical negative auxiliary ぬ, which corresponds to the negative auxiliary ない in modern ...
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3 votes
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"ji" ending on verb "nai" stem?

じ is an archaic auxiliary, similar to まい describing negative volition. http://www.hello-school.net/haroajapa009021.htm So it's まだ濡らすまい or まだ濡らさないようにしよう in modern Japanese.
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2 votes

How is 百にも足らぬ used here?

足{た}る in the phrases you mention refers to "being enough, being sufficient (to do something, to be something)". 取るに足らない could be understood literally as "insufficient" (足らない) "to / for taking" (取るに) →...
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1 vote
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Why じと instead of ず in その機を逃さじと?

じ is used to form negative volitional with 未然形 in classical Japanese so just treat it as 終止形 plus まい (◍•ᴗ•◍)❤
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1 vote

The meaning of しなければならず in this article

しなければならず stands for しなければならない It means ( must).
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1 vote

Help for this expression: 猿は人間に毛が[三筋]{みすじ}足らぬ

猿は人間に毛が三筋足りぬ、is also said 毛が三本足りぬ. I think 三本足りぬ is more popular than 三筋足りぬ as a saying today.  Both '三筋' and '三本' mean three pieces (or threads) of hair. It means monkeys resemble men, but they have ...
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