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63

The key to understanding this difference in aspect (not tense) lies in knowing what kind of verb we're dealing with. For verbs that describe actions (食【た】べる, 走【はし】る, etc) and events (降【ふ】る, 吹【ふ】く, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of an action. For verbs that describe changes in state (死【し】ぬ, 割【わ】れる, 溶【と】ける, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of a state. ...


30

ちょっと待ってて (chotto matte te) literally means "Keep waiting for a while (please)." That て (te) at the end does not mean "I'll be back shortly", at least grammatically. ちょっと (chotto) just means "for a while", "a little", etc. 待ってて (matte te) is constructed as follows: 待つ (matsu): simple intransitive verb, "to wait" 待って (matte): te-form of 待つ 待っている (matte iru): ...


20

Both means a continued change in state but with slight difference. 行く is for something that moves away from the speaker (not necessarily a physical movement), or away from another person's viewpoint that the speaker adopts. 来る is for something that moves towards the speaker (not necessarily a physical movement), or towards another person's viewpoint ...


17

@snailplane introduced this interesting article to me! 山下 好孝. テンスの「た」とアスペクトの「た」 (PDF) 初級日本語教科書では「~ましたか」の質問に対して,「~ていません」と答えるのを初級の学習者に導入する時は、「もう」と「まだ」を教える時である。(略) しかし、実際は、去年のことやもっと昔のことを開いても、「~ていません」「~てないです」という答え方をする人もいる。 The result of a survey in this article shows native speakers' preference between ~ていません and ~ませんでした in various situations. The result of ...


13

Here's where 歩けなく comes from: Start with the verb 歩く, "to walk". Turn it into its potential form: 歩ける, "able to walk". Make it negative: 歩けない, "unable to walk". Turn the newly formed i-adjective into an adverb: 歩けなく. Now, なっちゃう is a shorter form of なって + しまう. なって, of course, is the -て form of なる, which means "to become". なる requires that the adjective ...


12

「〜いる」 primer Japanese is honestly far more simple than English when it comes to aspect. In Japanese, the rule is that 「〜いる」 means you are currently (or will be) in some state related to the verb, while 「〜いた」 means you had been in some state related to the verb. There are many such states: The state of doing something (progressive). The state of regularly ...


12

A note on translation Expressing the same ideas in different languages inevitably results in all kinds of things that don't fit very well, if we try to look only at the individual words used in those expressions. This makes things quite difficult for the beginning learner, since we don't yet have a bigger-picture understanding of how a given language works....


11

Here in all of your examples, it's a contraction of 飲んでいき~ (飲んで行きい) in regional dialect mainly used in the Kansai area, meaning 飲んでいけ (飲んで + subsidiary verb 行け), or 飲んでいって(ちょうだい), literally "(Please) Drink and go." This colloquial contraction (dropping い in the subsidiary verb 行く) is also seen in Standard Japanese: 飲んでいく → 飲んでく 走っていこう。 → 走ってこう。 / ...


9

The construct is more or less correct, but there are a few grammatical errors in your proposal. アメリカで9月間ぐらいに住んでいます。 I believe 住む takes に for the location of residence. アメリカに住んでいます。 「9月間ぐらい」 should be 「9ヶ月間ぐらい」, and does not need to take any particles. Also note that the 「間」 may also be dropped here in less formal situations. 9ヶ月間ぐらいアメリカに住んでいます。 ...


9

東雲【しののめ】 fell out of use many years ago, and it's marked as a 古語 (archaic word) in dictionaries. It's now mainly recognized as an uncommon proper noun (e.g., 東雲駅, list of fictional characters named 東雲). Most people today don't know its meaning. Originally, 東雲 referred to a short period of time when the sun is not yet visible but the sky is already bright (...


9

This た doesn't mean "past" but "completion". It isn't unnatural that た which means "completion" is used in things in the future. So 明日は、朝ご飯を食べた後、学校に行く is correct.


9

俺がもっと早く飛天を倒していれば… If only I had defeated Hiten much earlier... 俺がもっと早く飛天を倒せば… If I defeat Hiten much more quickly... ている here describes the continuation of state. See: When is Vている the continuation of action and when is it the continuation of state? 倒す here is a change-in-state verb (a.k.a. a punctual verb, 瞬間動詞) 俺は飛天を倒している。 I have (already) ...


8

If you had to construct the sentence using 〜はじめる, that would be: 傘を持っていきはじめなければいけなくなった。 I had to start bringing an umbrella. Since that is quite a mouthful (and not very natural despite its grammatical correctness), some other options: 毎日傘を持っていかなければいけなくなった。 I had to start bringing an umbrella every day. 毎日傘を持っていくようになった。 I started to bring an umbrella ...


8

疲れる is not an unusual verbal, so there is no need to identify verbals like it. Rather, understanding how Japanese expressions tend to be expressions of changes of state will help with interpreting this and similar future encounters with perfective ("past") forms. 1) Why is 疲れた used to indicate a present state? (Is there a logic behind these types of verbs ...


7

I am going to say just a couple of things regarding your first list of 5 meanings. I have been hesitating to do this because what I want to say might confuse the beginning students more than it could clarify things for them. 「Verb + ている」 is that subtle. After mentioning it in the comment some days ago, I am still having difficulty understanding why you ...


7

The former. For the vast majority of verbs and situations I can think of, it is: まだ [ te-form verb ] いない I haven't [ past participle ] yet まだ髪が乾いていない My hair hasn't dried yet その本はまだ読んでいない I haven't read that book yet まだ聴いていない曲 A song I haven't heard yet I'm not [ present participle ] yet can be expressed with something like: まだ [ verb stem ] ...


7

A is less natural than B, because だんだん, which stands for a gradual change, doesn't really get along with なった, which is an instantaneous change. But it sounds like approximation of だんだん読めないようになっていった. In this case, the difference is, なってきた means that the change continues from a certain point in the past to the moment of speech, while なっていった means that the ...


7

[初]{はじ}めてする means I do for the first time. しはじめる means I start to do. しはじめる implies that you are doing that now. So, sentence 1 is "I drank coffee for the first time" and 2 is "I started to drink coffee." In addition, 飲んではじめました is unnatural. 飲みはじめました is natural.


7

ていた doesn't mean anything on itself, because it's a part of conjugation: 晴れる{はれる} - the verb - which means roughly "to become clear" (as in clear weather). 晴れて{はれて} - verb's te-form て+いる - a grammar form for continuous action て+いた - continuous action in the past Combined, 晴れていた means "it was sunny" or "the skies were clear".


7

The real lie is in the assumption that the Japanese language is genetically related to Chinese. There is long cultural contact, and heavy lexical/morphological borrowing, but the underlying structures of the two languages remain distinct. To answer your question, we need to first define tense and aspect. Tense is a morphological change in verbs to denote ...


7

(1) chyotto matte tte (2) why does the tte mean "... and I'll be back shortly". (1) ちょっと待{ま}ってって ↓ 「ちょっと待{ま}って」って ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」って ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と(私{わたし}が言{い}ってるのに、あなたはなぜ待ってくれないの?) ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と(私が言ってるのに、あなたはなぜ待ってくれないの?) 「I'll be back shortly」って思{おも}ってるのに。 ↓ (2) Why don't you wait for me a moment in spite of my saying "...


7

Based on what I've been learning, it seems that by saying 分からない, your suggesting that you just don't do "the act of understanding," but if you say 分かっていない, you are saying that "right now, I don't understand. I only wonder where and/or how you have been learning Japanese. However, I hear people say 分からない to mean "I don't understand" much more often. ...


6

It's NOT 留める has two readings, but two similar but distinct words share the written form 留める. As for how different (or how similar) they are, I could say the main difference between とめる and とどめる is aspect. The figure below explains how. EDIT: Note that とめる only happens in the transitional duration, while とどめる does as long as you're keeping it still (maybe ...


6

Your understanding is correct. 速い refers to one's speed and 早い refers to time. However, 早い has more uses than just meaning early. Check: How to distinguish between the meanings of "quickly", "soon" and "early" for 早く. 早く来る would mean coming quickly with the focus on getting there on time, not particularly on getting there with ...


6

「かけ」 comes from the verb 「かける」, which is a key verb with over a dozen meanings. See definition #15 in this dictionary. To summarize the pertinent parts of #15 in my own way, it says the following. 「Verb in [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) + かける」 means: "to start (verb)ing", "to start (verb)ing and stop in the middle without completing", "to be ...


6

知る means something more akin to "get to know". So by saying 電話番号を知ります you're saying that you "are getting to know something ", you don't know it yet. So if you're asking whether someone knows a number, then you have to use the form that reflects that current state of things. That's why you say 電話番号を知っています to mean you know something. This works very ...


6

It is a bit controversial whether Japanese really has tenses or aspects, but it may be more correct to think of them as aspects, as Japanese tends to refer to changes in state. Either way, there are only two main "tenses," which, like most conjugations in Japanese, are shared across verbals, nominals, and adjectivals. The imperfective: The "default" tense, ...


6

First of all, 「好{す}き」 is an adjective and not a verb, meaning there is no such thing as present or past "tense" for the word. If you knew this, I would apologize, but I had to mention it after reading your comment like "making the 'suki' past tense". Thus, your question is actually about the tense of 「だった」 instead. 「ずっと好きだった。」 can mean both: 1) "I ...


6

To form the past progressive form (was ~ing), just change the います/いる to the past tense. 食べています。 / 食べている。 I am eating (now). [present progressive] 食べていました。 / 食べていた。 I was eating (at that time in the past). [past progressive] Japanese ている/ていた is indeed tricky because it can express both the progressive form (is/was ~ing) and the perfect aspect ((...


5

"It's clear to me that [結婚]{けっこん}する is a change verb, but I'm not sure if 結婚する is transitive or intransitive." In Japanese, it is intransitive. You can only say 「Person + と + 結婚する」, never 「Person + を + 結婚する」. " All the dictionaries I've checked don't list 結婚する, just 結婚." Of course not, because 「結婚する」 is two words. For the sake of a smooth discussion, ...


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