14

Unfortunately, there is no easy and clear rule to determine which parsing strategy is correct. The general rule is "Choose the shortest and simplest parsing strategy as long as it makes sense". It depends on the context, your vocabulary, and your common sense. But please don't worry too much — English speakers also do similar things every day. Compare ...


11

Yes. 見える (divalent) A が B に見える "A is visible to B". 大切なものは目に見えない。 What is essential is invisible to the eye. (divalent) A が B に見える "A looks (like) B". 「でつ」がスヌーピーの顔に見える。 "でつ" looks like Snoopy's face. (monovalent) A が見える "A can see things". [吸血鬼]{きゅう・けつ・き}は夜でも見える。 Vampires have night vision.


11

私に言われても is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), a kind of Indirect Passive Structure (間接受身構文), and 私が言われても is Direct Passive Structure (直接受身構文). 「(あなたが)私に言う」 (Active/能動) "You tell me." → Direct Passive: 「私が(あなたに)言われる」 "I am told (by you)." → Indirect Passive: 「(私が)(あなたに)私に*言われる」 "You tell me (and it affects me in some way)." This means "You do the action 私に言う (you ...


7

Actually, this kind of "double が" situation happens all the time. Sometimes there's just no elegant way around it. In this case, Aさんは doesn't feel exactly right because these notifications appear out of the blue with no surrounding context. In cases where brand new information is coming in, が usually feels better in introducing it. Imagine it sort of like an ...


7

You're 90% there. Let's take your list in order, shall we? 1. Quotation Particle As you noted, if you see it followed by a verb indicating expression (思う、言う、話す, etc.) then it's being used in this manner. 2. Conditional Particle The following sentence is the way I was taught to use this one: 秋になると、葉が落ちる。 "When autumn comes, the leaves fall." In other ...


7

The negative form …したくない means “WANT(NOT(…)).” For example, 山に登りたくない means the speaker wants to avoid climbing a mountain. To express “NOT(WANT(…)),” we have to use other constructs such as 山に登りたいのではない. Compare the following examples. 竜とは戦いたくないが、姫を助ける方法はほかにない。 竜と戦いたいわけではないが、姫を助ける方法はほかにない。 In the first example, the speaker wants to avoid fighting against ...


7

There is no difference in pitch accent between 鉄拳 and 鉄剣, so it purely depends on which word is more familiar to laypeople. Neither is particularly common in daily life, but IMO 鉄拳 is a little bit more familiar because there is a word 鉄拳制裁, which is used outside gaming or history contexts. "Iron sword" is usually referred to simply as 鉄の剣. It's ...


6

Recently, @naruto mentioned the phrase 頭が赤い魚を食べた猫, which can be understood in many ways. There is some ambiguity in how each word relates to each other. Among other possibilities, it could mean [(頭が赤い)魚]を食べた猫 (red-headed fish) [(頭が赤い)+(魚を食べた)]猫 (red-headed cat) The same applies here. Consider the following pattern: AとBとCのD As far as logic and grammar ...


6

As you know, most glyphs in Japanese fonts share the same width, so problems arising from kerning (or variable character widths, broadly speaking) almost never happen in Japanese typography. Well, we can think of some unrealistic examples... hankaku katakana イム (i+mu) looks like kanji 仏 (ほとけ), and hankaku katakana ノレ (no+re) looks like zenkaku katakana ル (ru)...


6

This ~と一線を画す is an idiom, and in this context it means "to keep a distance from ~". It's not even ambiguous, and I think your translation attempt is correct. 年長者であり医師であり is of course "being a senior, and (also being) a doctor", and it's technically different from 年長の医師であり ("being a senior medical doctor"). I don't know the story, and this may not be a ...


6

This sentence can either mean "The one I want to protect is you" or it can mean "the one who wants to protect (someone else) is you". Yes, it can mean both. Any way to distinguish besides context? No, there is no way to distinguish besides context. But when you write a sentence like this, you can simply add a が-/を-phrase to disambiguate. When a が-marked ...


5

I hear かわよさそう used frequently as a substitute for かわいそう, and sometimes its altered companion, かわよい. I presume it's very slangy and I feel perhaps a bit feminine, but it does exist nonetheless. Another workaround might be to use 可愛{かわい}らしい, which while technically different, at least approaches the intended meaning. As for when it's used, I don't think it ...


5

(1) The words are still used commonly as you describe, i.e. 彼 = he/him/boyfriend and 彼女 = she/her/girlfriend (2) Semantic context is definitely the easiest way to differentiate. Yes, there might be times when the words could be ambiguous or be construed in unintended ways, but that is probably true of some words in most languages. In any case, the speaker ...


5

Your translation is 100% spot on. However, this usage of 考える is neither colloquial nor poor use of the language. Following your same logic, パッと見て何を模したかわかる形 would imply that the 形 is the thing doing the looking and the understanding, but we know that to not be the case. We know that the thing doing the looking and understanding is a general person, the '...


5

Assuming the beginning is 「どうぞ」 and not 「どくぞ」, then it is quite simple. The sign says ごじゆうに おとりください. The store owner's intended meaning is ご[自由]{じ・ゆう}に, which means "freely" or "feel free to". However, if the sign was written only in hiragana, the person might have mistook it for ごじゅうに (notice the small-sized ゅ instead of the larger ゆ). In this case, as ...


5

I also think, and hope, the first interpretation is correct. It would be terrible writing if the author meant it in the second way. As pointed out by Will, 地域に生息する他の固有種 would have made this meaning crystal clear. Having read the subsequent part, though, I think I understand why you thought the second interpretation might be the case. ...


4

Yes, it can have either meaning. English allows a distinction due to the fact that there are two clauses involved (removing the negative, 'I want' and 'to do (some/any)thing'), so it allows negation in either clause. Japanese has a single clause, and so negation has to end up in a single location. So the distinction is determined purely contextually - ...


4

The particle "が" is not different in your examples, but the verb "見える" has more than one meaning. Theoretically, you are correct. A person like Altair might be described as 目が見えない人. Of course you have to say フードのせいで外から目が見えない人 or something like that in order to avoid confusion. Similar things happen in English, and the natural interpretation greatly ...


4

In this case, it isn't the volitional form, but よう(様). See this entry in the 大辞泉, sense 2 and 6. よう〔ヤウ〕【様】 2 方法。やり方。 6 動詞の連用形の下に付いて複合語をつくる。 ありさま、ようすなどの意を表す。 …する方法、…するやり方などの意を表す。 Therefore, 名づけようもなく could literally be interpreted as [there] not even being a way/possibility to name [it], .... Or shorter, it cannot be named or ...


4

The bad news-は we don't really have an effective way to distinguish them. The good news-は in fact you don't have to distinguish them. The particle は's function could be loosely described as "singling out one thing you and I know as the current focus," that is, every usage theoretically carries contrastive overtones, as long as it has possible competitors in ...


4

This would probably depend on context, as in English. For instance, I think the following sentence would be ambiguous in both English and Japanese: 田中さんと島田さんのメモ帳のおかげでいろいろと分かりました。 I found out all kinds of things thanks to Tanaka and Shimada's notebook. It could mean that the speaker spoke to Tanaka and read Shimada's notebook, or it could mean that the ...


4

It depends on the context. For example, in the case of 彼と私の娘は、昨年同じ小学校に入学した. When he is a child, it means Aと(BのC). When he is an adult, it means (AのC)と(BのC). When he is the daughter's father and the sentence is 彼と私の娘は、昨年小学校に入学した, it means (AとB)のC. In the case of 彼と私の娘は、頭が良い, it also could mean the three patterns. If you clearly want to mean (AのC)と(BのC), you ...


4

I believe there's no way to differentiate other than reading paragraphs. 検索対象文書 may mean both, depending on the context. If you want to clarify the meaning, you should say explicitly : フォルダの中で特定のファイルを検索する ファイル名で検索する 文書名で検索する (find a certain document by document name) against: ファイルの中のデータを検索する ファイル内を検索する 文書内の単語を検索する (find a certain word in a document / ...


4

I think using なれば rather than なる in your example shows that there is a wish or hope that planting such plum trees will contribute to the relaxation of the visitors. English has a similar way of using a conditional expression to express a wish or hope. For example... "If you wouldn't mind taking that poster off the wall." "Yeah, if you could just get me ...


4

Your translation is correct, and どんな意味が込められているのか考えるもの(=形) is a completely natural Japanese phrase at the same time. Grammatically speaking, I think this is something called a gapless relative clause explained here. Other similar examples include: 英語を学ぶ楽しみ the joy of learning English (not "the joy which is learning English") カエルが水に飛び込む音 the sound of a frog ...


4

庭 refers to a (wide but usually enclosed) place adjacent to a house. Assuming your yard looks like this, 庭 refers to everything in this picture, including the brick-paved part. Your "garden" may be 花壇, 家庭菜園, 庭園, ガーデン or 植木 in Japanese. It's possible to explain the difference in sentences, but perhaps it's best to see images, so please check the links.


4

It's related to rather contexts than phonology. Other than the lecture of Japanese history, one normally associates "Tekken" with 鉄拳{てっけん}. I do not think one can associate "Tekken" with 鉄剣{てっけん} at present-day. Japanese Emperor does not have to have an iron sword for their authority at present-day (2000 years ago possibly he uses it). &...


3

It is quite obvious. It's a bit awkward, but I'm not sure I'd call it a 'train wreck'; there's not really a better way to say exactly that. There's really no ambiguity - *XがYが cannot be read as 'X (subject) and Y (also subject)' because you would say that in some other way, likely either XとYが or sometimes (in more formal speech) X、Yが. Two case-marked nouns ...


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