19

🈂 is for サービス, as in receiving something for free. However, I've seen several other sources say this means "service charge", which is the complete opposite of free. So I'm not positive if it's one or the other, or possibly either depending on the context. 🈁 is just for ここ (here). Here's a list of some other common ones.


17

Your book is correct. When talking about human body temperature, 三十 is often omitted, probably because it is obvious. While there is nothing wrong with saying 37度8分 (37.8 degrees Celsius), it is often abbreviated to 7度8分. Even 37度 (37 degrees Celsius) without a fractional part sometimes becomes 7度. You cannot abbreviate the temperature when it is 40 ...


15

This is just "Hi". こんちゃ/こんちわ/ちわ/ちは/etc is a very casual version of こんにちは. Of course this は is pronounced "wa". For "ーす", see: What does っす at the end of a sentence mean? Jisho.org also has an entry for this. Other variations include ちわっす, こんちゃっす, ちゃーっす, ちゃーす, ちっす and ちーす.


13

行書 & 草書 (semi-cursive and cursive writings) 行書【ぎょうしょ】 (semi-cursive script) is similar to English 'handwriting' style, and this is the most orthodox way of writing Japanese sentences fast. This is what Japanese students learn at middle school, although that does not necessarily mean all students master beautiful 行書. You can compare 楷書【かいしょ】 (regular ...


12

I do not think that I have ever seen 日語 for 日本語 in Japanese. Both Daijirin and Daijisen list the word 日語 with the meaning “the Japanese language,” but Daijirin notes that the word is used in Chinese, Korean and so on. Indeed 日語 sounds like a Chinese word to me. There are a few words which mean almost the same thing as 日本語: 国語 (こくご): Literally means “...


12

It means kuuki yomenai. A friend explained this concept as follows: In Japanese culture, the social protocol calls for utmost attention to the right "atmosphere." Certain actions can only be considered appropriate when the "atmosphere" of the time and place allowed for them to be carried out. In Japanese lingo, it is "reading the air" (空気を読む)...


10

Section 10 - "二・小・原" is "二輪・小型特殊・原付". So it means "motrocycle/small spacial veicle/moped". Section 11 - "他" is anything except "二輪・小型特殊・原付". So it means "大型・中型・普通・大型特殊・けん引". Section 12 - "二種" is "Class 2". It's "commercial passenger-carrying vehicle". Section 13 first row 大型 - Large vehicle (e.g. dump truck) 中型 - Medium vehicle (e.g. truck) 普通 - Ordinary ...


9

っちゃあ is totally convertible to といえば, except that っちゃあ sounds very chatty and rough while といえば can be used in formal expressions. You can say 忙しいといえば忙しいけど, and it conveys the same meaning. As for the word form, actually there are other forms like っていやあ and ってやあ. They phonetically seem to fall between といえば and っちゃあ, making the presumable process of sound ...


9

「(adjective)っちゃあ(same adjective)(だ)けど」= 「~~って[言]{い}っちゃ(あ)~~(だ)けど」= 「~~って言ったら~~(だ)けど」 "somewhat ~~", "~~ to a degree", "You could call it ~~, I guess", etc. 「[忙]{いそが}しいっちゃあ忙しいけど」= "I am somewhat busy if not terribly so". The nuance is that you are not busy enough to want to actively tell everyone that you are busy. If anything, you are only mildly busy. ...


9

When words are borrowed in speech, they're generally "repaired" to match the phonology of the target language. In Japanese, that usually means picking the nearest consonant and vowel sounds and adding epenthetic vowels to avoid consonant clusters that aren't allowed (like /str/ → /sutor/), although other methods of repair are occasionally used (e.g. ...


9

It results from one of the components in 竹 , which is in turn taken from the radical sitting on the top of 箇 (a generic counter for pieces).


9

I think that it is rare to use the words such as A子 and B子 as an abbreviation. They are placeholder names for females, and they do not usually mean that the names actually end with 子. Just like suffix 子, suffix 男 (such as A男) is often used to make placeholder names for males. (Here is a random example which uses A男 and B子.) Some people use letters with 子 ...


9

This is usually not intended to be read aloud, but the most prevailing "reading" is not わらう but わら. For example, ww is わらわら. 笑うを意味する「www」をなんて読んでる? 「wは読まずに前の文を笑いながら」「わらわらわら」 You can mainly hear this pronunciation on live streaming sites such as ニコニコ生放送 where hosts often configure screen readers to read visitors' comments aloud. I have read somewhere that /...


8

It depends on the words and how they are pronounced, although the pattern you noticed is common. For example, the following don't fit the pattern you see: Brad Pitt -> ブラピ Ice Cream -> アイス Convenience Store -> コンビニ There has been a lot of linguistic studies about this and many patterns that exist. One rule is that they are always truncated to ...


8

Just 自販 without the 機 is quite common.


8

Yes, 男性向 is a valid abbreviation, and still pronounced だんせいむけ. Okurigana is often omitted, especially in longer compounds like 男性向同人. Similar examples: 受け付け = 受付け = 受付 = うけつけ ("reception") 申し込み = 申込み = 申込 = もうしこみ ("application") 打ち合わせ = 打合せ = うちあわせ ("meeting") Omission of okurigana is largely customary and happens in limited number of words. Please don't ...


7

Of course the signs are primarily meant to be seen & understood, rather than read. I think the signs, if they had to be read (as in "It says X here"), would be read as literally as possible 押 おす 引 ひく 男 おとこ 女 おんな 危 あぶない きけん 開 あける あく ひらく 閉 しめる しまる とじる 酒 さけ The only odd one out is 危, but 危険 and 危ない are practically interchangeable in most ...


7

Turns out this character is a fairly common ryakuji (abbreviated character) of the common honorific [御]{ご} go-, as in [御飯]{ごはん} gohan, so the full word is [御夢想]{ごむそう} go-musou, the name of the hot spring where the ryokan was located. Another example here.


7

This is a common abbreviation style to suggest a certain phrase by enclosing a single kanji in the word. Some frequently used symbols are now officially available on the computer (see 1, 2) due to typographical needs. In this case, ㊙︎ = 秘密【ひみつ】 = "secret, confidential, classified" (often in ads or catch lines) It can be read aloud 丸秘【まるひ】 "circle(d) ひ". ...


7

This is an internet slang. おはつ means 初めまして and よろ means よろしくお願いします.


6

「と」 here is a quotative particle used to quote 「ふん」; It is not an abbreviation of anything. 「と」, all by itself, is in its full form. It may look like 「と」 is at the beginning of the sentence, but in essence, it is the same as: 「ふん」と、彼女は鼻を鳴らし、中学の制服である・・・・ A direct quote, no matter how short it is, is often treated as a full line in stories, which is what ...


6

Perhaps the following would reek of Chinese thinking, where 原因 for example is traditionally thought of as two words. 原因 = 因 of the 原, i.e. causing reason 結果 = 果 which has 結, i.e. the produced result Both words arose in Chinese as a way to eliminate homophones by adding redundant adjectives (obviously all reasons are causing, and all results are produced). ...


6

It is common to abbreviate a loanword to four morae, and when the original loanword is a compound word consisting of two components, then it is common to do so by taking the first two morae from each component. Sometimes sokuon (little tsu: ッ) and chōon (ー) are skipped when counting two morae for this purpose. リモートコントロール (remote control) or リモートコントローラー (...


6

動 is 動詞, verb. ラ means the verb conjugates on the r-. 下一 (shimo ichi) and 下二 (shimo ni) are abbreviations for 下一段 (shimo ichidan "lower monograde") and 下二段 (shimo nidan "lower bigrade"). These are verb conjugation types. There are other conjugation types: 四段 (yodan), 五段 (godan), 上一段 (kami ichidan), 上二段 (kami nidan), サ変 (sa-hen), カ変 (ka-hen), ナ変 (na-hen), and ...


6

Xと言えばX, where X is any predicate, is a way to reluctantly admit X. 3日でできると言えばできます。 I can do it in 3 days if you insist (but I don't want to do so) その花は赤いと言えば赤い。 You may say the flower is red (but normally, it's not red) そのプランは可能と言えば可能だ。 If I must choose between possible and impossible, it's possible. And っちゃ is a very colloquial contraction for と言えば (maybe ...


6

べき is used with a verb in its "dictionary form". [verb]べき should [verb] As you can see, べき by itself corresponds to "should", but it never appears by itself (just like "should" doesn't appear by itself). You can easily form examples, 食べるべき = should eat 行くべき = should go You only need to remember one additional rule, する+べき → すべき (About one in ...


6

「ご家族{かぞく}とよく相談{そうだん}して書{か}いてくるように。」 You are reading the end part correctly. Something like 「してください」 or「しなさい」 is left unsaid as it is clear. When a request (or a lighter kind of imperative) ends with 「ように」, it always comes from a person of a higher status to a person of a lower status. If a request is made the other way around, the speaker (who is lower ...


6

Almost! 「~~ようってんじゃない」=「~~ようと言ってるんじゃない」 In the examples you have listed, however, it is actually pretty close to 「思ってる」 in meaning. Seems you have already noticed that, in Japanese, the line between 「言う」 and 「思う」 is often blurry.


6

ならない。 「のに」も「なのに」も「んに」や「なんに」にはならない。


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