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1

Depending on the context, [電気]{でんき}をつけています may describe an ongoing action. (Lesson 14) When it describes a resulting state, it is different from [電気]{でんき}がついています in that that state is as intented, from the speaker’s viewpoint. [電気]{でんき}がついています。The lights are on. [電気]{でんき}をつけています。We have the lights on (intentionally).


1

If you're asking this, your Japanese is pretty good! That said, ~てくる、in this context, means that the author is being reflective, looking at self outside in. It also implies gradual, not sudden, change in emotions. It's the difference between I'm crying. and (when I came to it, I realized) I found tears flowing down my face. 笑みがこぼれてくる、is like, I found myself ...


2

Transitivity is not important to determine the meaning of ている. It depends more on the meaning of each verb: progressive ("is doing") perfect aspect ("has done") transitive ~を食べているis eating ~ ~を超えているhas surpassed ~ intransitive 走っているis running 死んでいるhas died (is dead) As for 電気をつけています, つける is usually an easy instant action, so it can ...


1

The reason your sentence, with or without のよう, sounds unnatural is not because the て-form is interpreted as indicating a reason or cause. I’m a native speaker, and I don’t particularly read the meaning of “therefore” in it. However, the sentence still sounds unnatural because the main clause, which follows the て-form, says something that goes contrary to ...


5

お菓子を食べても良かったですか? お菓子を食べても大丈夫でしたか? Was it okay to eat the candy? This is already grammatically correct, but it says nothing about whether the speaker actually ate it or not. If you need to tell you actually ate it, you can say something like: お菓子を食べたんですが、良かったですか? お菓子を食べてしまいましたけど大丈夫でしたか? Also note that いいか, よかったか and so on without です/ます are unrealistically ...


0

As you suggested in your question, the past form of ~て(も)いい can be formed using the よかった. For example, 子供のとき、コーヒーを飲んでもよかった。 When I was I child, I was allowed to drink coffee. So, I don't see a reason why this shouldn't work for your example.


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For the sake of this answer, your sentence Was it okay that I ate the candy? can be rephrased as Was I allowed to eat the candy? It doesn't change the meaning of the original sentence. You want to ask if eating candy was permissible. The only grammar construction I can think of that suits your needs is [V-causative]+くれる. When you use this construction, ...


3

Yes, we can say it as "のたまって" too.


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遊べて is the て from of 遊べる 'able to play/hang out'. 'It was fun being able to hang out with you.' Basically, as we'd usually say in English (thank you for the suggestion, A. Ellett), 'It was fun getting to hang out with you.' 遊んで is just the て form of the base 遊ぶ.


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