18

"Dropped" is not such an accurate word here as the 「て」 is optional in the first place. The te-form seems to enjoy a rockstar treatment in the world of Japanese-as-a-foreign-language. Learners love to talk about it, but what many rarely mention (or know about) is its informality. This is one of the things that took me by surprise when I started mingling ...


13

The verb is 捨てる, so its て-form is 捨てて, hence the compound form Vて+しまう becomes 捨ててしまう. If it were the casual ちゃう instead of しまう that you were using, that starts from the て-form too, but also contracts the て, so it would instead be 捨てちゃう, with just the one て. Perhaps that is where the confusion arose? Hope that helps!


11

The te-form of the verb やる is やって. やれって is not a te-form but やれ (the imperative form of やる, which can conclude a sentence on its own) followed by って. This って is a colloquial version of quotative-と, and it's used in relation to 言ってたぞ in the previous sentence. 死んだじいちゃんがいってたぞ。もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれって。 ≒ 死んだじいちゃんが「もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれ」と言ってたぞ。...


9

there is perhaps some historical connection between the く sound and い sound, either phonologically or semantically. I think the answer from blutorange addresses this. Maybe these two classes of words [〜い adjectives and 〜く verbs] diverged from the same class of words somehow? I'll disagree with blutorange about this part, as his answer is (I believe) ...


9

お気をつけください is a politer/more respectful way of saying 気をつけてください. It's the honorific 「お + noun form/連用形 + ください」 form. Examples: 「待ってください。」 "Please wait" (noun form/連用形 of 待つ is 待ち) → 「お+待ち+ください。」 「話してください。」 "Please speak" (noun form/連用形 of 話す is 話し) → 「お+話し+ください。」 「注意してください。」 "Please be careful" (for kango you generally use ご) → 「ご+注意+ください。」 Likewise: ...


8

おやめください お+[連用形]+ください is an honorific language of ~~てください. So おやめください is an honorific, politer way of saying やめてください. It consists of: the honorific お + the continuative form of やめる + the imperative form of くださる. For more on お/ご~~ください, you may want to see: 「ご覧ください」v.s.「ご覧をください」 Is "して" dropped in this phrase "ご利用{りよう}ください"? かけ込み電車 ...


7

連用形 (usually translated as "continuative form") is one of "the basic 6 conjugation forms" of Japanese verbs/adjectives. For the ichidan verb 食べる, its 連用形 is 食べ. For godan verbs, many of them have two different 連用形. For example, 書く has two 連用形, namely 書き and 書い. How can we make a 連用形? Simply, remove ます from the masu-form. For godan verbs, you can create the ...


6

I think それ refers to the same thing as the earlier それ in それをひとつに揃える, which based on your explanation is 魔法. It's saying that it is important that the students grasp by themselves what is magic. 魔法が単なる数式みたくなって意味を見いだせなくなってしまう should really be seen as two related clauses: 魔法が単なる数式みたくなって and 意味を見いだせなくなってしまう. The te-form usage here is frequently used to ...


6

Is that as accurate? It actually is, roughly speaking. Here is the real difference in meaning and usage. 「いつ空いていますか。」 asks about when (what days of the week, what time, etc.) the other person tends to be (relatively) free. Thus, this question would generally be replied to with: ・「火曜日と木曜日の午前中。」 ・「月水金の午後4時以降。」, etc. 「いつ空きますか。」 is quite different ...


6

When a series of actions is listed with the verbs in the ~て conjunctive form, the list can parse out to "[VERB], then [VERB], then [VERB]..." Years ago, a friend of mine at work laughed after getting off the phone with his wife, when he realized that she'd explained her day using almost entirely ~て-form verbs. My memory is fuzzy, but it was something like, ...


6

The base 誘う's te-form would be 誘って, but it's not just the basic 誘う. 誘う = base 誘われる = passive form 誘われて = passive form's te-form In your song it indicates to be invited by something/someone.


6

There are a couple of things going on here, so let's try and tease them apart. "I haven't eaten yet" is not past tense in English. Past tense in English would be "I didn't eat." There is overlap between these ways of expressing a state, both in Japanese and English, but they're not the same. In both English and Japanese--and probably in many other languages ...


6

「この曲{きょく}を給食{きゅうしょく}のときにかけてきた放送委員{ほうそういいん}」 「曲をかける」 means "to play a song/tune on the stereo/CD player, etc.". In this case, the music is being played on the broadcasting system in a school during lunch time. The music "reaches" the students while eating; therefore, it is described as 「かけてくる」 from their perspective, which becomes 「かけてきた」 in the past ...


5

「人間ができている」 means "(someone) is a mature person". So you should parse it like: [吉田さんのような][優しくて、かつ人間も出来ている]男性 A man [who is kind and at the same time mature], [like Yoshida-san] 「吉田さんのような」 connects to 「(優しくて、かつ人間もできている)男性」. 優しくて、かつ人間もできている modifies the noun 男性. 優しくて is the て form, ie the continuous form of 優しい, "is kind, and...". かつ means "besides" "...


5

No, in this example 追いかけては is not functioning as a noun, and in fact I don't think this is an example of ては as it's explained in the article you linked to at all. I believe this is an instance in which は has simply been inserted to add emphasis: 追いかけてこないでしょう "They probably won't chase us," "He probably won't come after us," etc. becomes ...


5

For 様態{ようたい} ("conjecture"), the correct forms are: ・「皆{みな}が集{あつ}まっていそうだ」 "Looks like everyone has come." ・「食材{しょくざい}が揃{そろ}っていそうだ」 "Looks like they/we have all the ingredients ready." ・「おもしろそうだ」 No 「い」 before 「そう」. "It looks interesting." For 風聞{ふうぶん} ("hearsay"), the correct forms are: ・「皆が集まっているそうだ」 "They say/I hear that everyone has come." ・「...


5

僕{ぼく}に初{はじ}めて 見{み}せるような表情{ひょうじょう} でもそれは僕に向{む}けてじゃないよ The 「じゃない」 in 「向けてじゃない」 is not negating the verb 「向ける」, at least not directly. A direct negation of 「向ける」 would be 「向けない」, 「向けていない」, etc. instead. 「向けてじゃない」=「向けてではない」 The 「じゃない」 here is negating that the girl's facial expression is being made specifically for/toward the speaker (僕). To use the ...


5

As you guessed in your comment, ~てたくなる is a form of ~ていたくなる. (I wouldn't call it an error, though. This is a very common colloquial pronunciation.) It is not a shortened form of したくなる, because したくなる cannot even fit in these sentences to begin with. ~ていたくなる is form of ~ていたい, which is itself a form of ~ている. As ~ていたい means 'want to ~ている', ~ていたくなる means 'become ...


4

休んでくれませんか is more like won't you rest? 休ませてもらえますか is like could you let me rest? 休んでもらえますか is like could I have you take the day off? くれる is used when something is done in your/your party's favor. More specifically, it is attached to the verb that someone else does for you. For example, マイケルは(私に)ペンを貸してくれた。 もらう is used to describe your party receiving an ...


4

The answer is that sometimes (often!) you use て-form to describe cause and effect. You can think about it as an extension of connective use to mean 'and (then)', but you do have to be a bit careful about how you use it. To answer your question directly, in your example, you can essentially translate it as a "so" (or "because" if you reverse the clause order)...


4

You could use ので or から, you just don't have to as it can be implied. Compare «I was tired yesterday and I couldn't study» vs «Because I was tired yesterday I couldn't study». Your example is essentially the former. The いて is the te-form of いる which marks the verb as progressive or ongoing. 疲れる — To be tired 疲れている — Is tired 疲れていて — te-form of being tired


3

誘われて is a て-form, but not of 誘う, which would be 誘って, as you correctly note. Rather, it is the て-form of the passive conjugation of 誘う, which is 誘われる. 誘われて would mean "(I) am/was invited", with the tense as usual determined by the end-of-sentence verb. Does that help you to piece together the rest of the translation?


3

This is a combination of three grammar points, namely も, -てくる and sentence-end te-form. 雪が降る。 It snows. 雪が降ってきた。 It started to snow. This てくる describes something is coming toward you, mentally, temporally or physically. Difference between -ていく and -てくる 雪が降ってきて… It started to snow, and/so ... This te-form is where "now that" came in. See: て form at end ...


3

It's an example of te-form for reason, but the subsequent part ("I'm doing this" or "I stole this power") is omitted because it can be inferred from the context. In short, this te-form means "because". 試す: to try it 試してみる: to try it and see what happens (みる is a subsidiary verb explained here) 試してみたい: to want to try it and see what happens 試してみたくて: cuz I ...


3

Dictionary-form and masu-form are common in product documentations and how-to type sentences (e.g., 扉を開けるにはこのボタンを押す/押します), which explains why 出社したらメールを送る is fine. But it doesn't work as an immediate request/order. Ordinary Japanese speakers don't say プリントを出します in the context in question. Is this 先生 a professional Japanese teacher who teaches both beginners ...


3

もらう means the subject receives a favor/thing from someone else. The subject is typically "I", but it doesn't have to be so. As always, the implied subject depends on the context. 私は手伝ってもらった。 I got help (from someone). 彼は手伝ってもらった。 He got help (from someone). 手伝ってもらった。 {Someone} got help (from someone). (This "someone" is ...


3

This is essentially about the difference between 座る and 座っている. 座る refers to a motion: "to sit down (from a standing position)" or "to have a seat". Thus 静かに座る means to sit down slowly without making a noise, as opposed to throwing yourself into a seat. 静かに座れなかった is its negative-potential-past form, but this is not what you want to say. 座っている refers to a ...


3

Most important point: Do not rely on Google Translate. It is no good at Japanese. There is no information about tense in おそくなって。This is an incomplete sentence. But you can know the tense even without the next sentence by context. If someone calls you before you are due to meet they wouldn't say "sorry I was late", and if they are talking to you after they ...


3

平穏な暮らしをしている限りはわからないわ。 You won't notice it (=the ability) as long as you are leading an uneventful life. This する is "to do". Although "to do an uneventful life" makes little sense in English, 平穏な暮らしをする makes perfect sense in Japanese. Basic "light verbs" like する, やる, かける, とる, ひく and so on have lots of unpredictable usages, and you have to remember which ...


3

分かる refers to the transformation from わかっていない to わかっている. So, even if you say もう分かる, it's still not yet わかっている. It rather means the transformation from わかっていない to わかっている will already (succeed). As an example: 英語の基礎力はあるので、明日の新聞の内容はもう分かると思う 英語の基礎力はあるので、明日の新聞の内容はもう分かっていると思う The second sentence is strange because it implies you know the content of tomorrows' ...


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