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@snailplane introduced this interesting article to me! 山下 好孝. テンスの「た」とアスペクトの「た」 (PDF) 初級日本語教科書では「~ましたか」の質問に対して,「~ていません」と答えるのを初級の学習者に導入する時は、「もう」と「まだ」を教える時である。(略) しかし、実際は、去年のことやもっと昔のことを開いても、「~ていません」「~てないです」という答え方をする人もいる。 The result of a survey in this article shows native speakers' preference between ~ていません and ~ませんでした in various situations. The result of ...


16

The verb is 捨てる, so its て-form is 捨てて, hence the compound form Vて+しまう becomes 捨ててしまう. If it were the casual ちゃう instead of しまう that you were using, that starts from the て-form too, but also contracts the て, so it would instead be 捨てちゃう, with just the one て. Perhaps that is where the confusion arose? Hope that helps!


16

Overview: Modern Japanese There is some brief discussion of these in the English Wikipedia, in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Adjectival noun" article here, and a bit more detail in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Japanese equivalents of adjectives" article here. Long story short, the -taru adjectives in ...


14

Yes, it is the -て form of ます. But it's a little more restricted, so you need to be a bit careful. To be polite, you normally only need to use the です/ます form for the final verb. Any other verbs can be in their normal -て form. But if you really want to be polite, then you can put the other verbs in their polite -ます form, obviously resulting in -まして. It is ...


14

A (te-form) + は + B (masu-form) is a common pattern that describes someone repeatedly/habitually does B right after A as a paired action. See: 〜しては is this a grammar pattern? This set is often repeated for emphasis: A ては B、A ては B. 幼い頃、よく泣いては母親を困らせていた。 When I was young I always cried and annoyed my mother. Interestingly, AてはB as a whole sometimes behaves ...


12

How do you know in English? The degree to which て/で represent causality versus things being simply sequential is ambiguous in nearly the same way that and is ambiguous in the same role in English. Consider sentences like The door was locked and I couldn't open it. I ate too much for lunch and skipped dinner. I brushed my teeth and left for work. Which ...


11

The conjunctive form (aka pre-ます form) sounds more dry/learned/erudite/scholarly/formal. I hate all of those adjectives to describe it, but I think you know what I mean. It's of a higher register than the て form.


11

According to 明鏡国語辞典: て ㊁〘終助〙 ❷ 《「…でして」「…まして」「…してしまって」の形で》原因や理由、状況を示して釈明を表す。「お子様限定のサービスでして。」「電車が遅れまして。」「遅くなりまして。」「つい忘れちゃって。」 The て in your example is used to express a cause, reason or explanation/vindication. 明日みんなで桜を見に行くんですが、先生もいっしょにいらっしゃらないかなと思いまして。 "Tomorrow we're going to see cherry blossoms and I'm (we're) wondering if you'd like to join us (...


11

The te-form of the verb やる is やって. やれって is not a te-form but やれ (the imperative form of やる, which can conclude a sentence on its own) followed by って. This って is a colloquial version of quotative-と, and it's used in relation to 言ってたぞ in the previous sentence. 死んだじいちゃんがいってたぞ。もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれって。 ≒ 死んだじいちゃんが「もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれ」と言ってたぞ。 My ...


9

This usage of いる is unrelated to its usual function as a grammar element. 〜ている 食事を食べている "I am eating my meal" (progressive) "I eat meals" (habitual) ?? "I eat my meal and I am here (/I exist)" (conjunction) Reading #3 is never used because no one would ever need to say that. I included it only to show that the て-form does normally perform a ...


9

The sentence A: A: 宿題をして行かない生徒が多いです。 This almost always means "There are many students who go to school without doing their homework." (ie, they go to school anyway) In English, "Don't drink and drive" always means "Don't drive after you drink", not "Don't drink! Do drive!". Here "drink-and-drive" is ...


9

there is perhaps some historical connection between the く sound and い sound, either phonologically or semantically. I think the answer from blutorange addresses this. Maybe these two classes of words [〜い adjectives and 〜く verbs] diverged from the same class of words somehow? I'll disagree with blutorange about this part, as his answer is (I believe) ...


9

お気をつけください is a politer/more respectful way of saying 気をつけてください. It's the honorific 「お + noun form/連用形 + ください」 form. Examples: 「待ってください。」 "Please wait" (noun form/連用形 of 待つ is 待ち) → 「お+待ち+ください。」 「話してください。」 "Please speak" (noun form/連用形 of 話す is 話し) → 「お+話し+ください。」 「注意してください。」 "Please be careful" (for kango you generally use ご) → 「ご+注意+ください。」 Likewise: ...


8

The standard form is おもしろくて仕方ない, where おもしろくて is used as an adjective (not adverb) in the て-form for connecting predicates. (て-form adjective) + 仕方ない or (たい-form verb in て-form) + 仕方ない is a common phrase that means “It's so (adjective)” or “I really want to (verb)”. The nuance of this 仕方ない is “I can't stand it”, but it's not to be taken literally, ...


8

If sentence A has a comma like: A: 宿題をして、行かない生徒が多いです。 B: 宿題をしないで行く生徒が多いです。 then Sjiveru is right. However, it doesn't have a comma, so they have the same meaning. They mean "There are many students who go without doing their homework." The して行かない doesn't mean "don't go" but "don't do their homework."


8

What decreases is the stock on hand. In other words, Maruko's mother is saying that, since people eat nori on so many occasions, one's supply runs out very quickly, and so one is happy to receive it. Think of a big pool of available nori that gets drained as it gets used.


8

Yes it's adverbial in relation to the verb (predicate), but you can't say it's simply an adverb (you can't use a te-form verb alone as an adverb). The word 付帯状況 literally means "collateral situation" (I wasn't able to find a proper English translation) that means what you're doing alongside doing action that is described with main verb, such as: ...


8

ワインを買っていく literally means "I'll buy wine and go". You'd say this to mean "I'll buy wine on my way to the place where you are (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to the place where you are)", "I'll buy wine on my way to somewhere (away from the hearer) (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to somewhere (away from the hearer))", or "I'll ...


8

まったく可愛くねー 起こし方しやがって! In colloquial speech, the te-form of a verb at the end of a sentence can express 非難 (reproach/criticism/condemnation) or 不満 (complaint/dissatisfaction). Examples: 「太郎ったら、また脱いだものほったらかしにして!」 「もう、ケンカばっかりして!いいかげんにしなさい!」 「どいつもこいつも、俺をバカにしやがって!」 As a side note, the て-form at the end of a sentence can also express 命令/依頼(command/request)...


8

してる is simply a colloquial contracted form of している, similarly one has してない contracted from していない. It is very common in spoken language, but ungrammatical in "proper" (school) grammar. This contraction is maybe similar to contractions such as she had/would → she'd it is → it's I have → I've.


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