62

The key to understanding this difference in aspect (not tense) lies in knowing what kind of verb we're dealing with. For verbs that describe actions (食【た】べる, 走【はし】る, etc) and events (降【ふ】る, 吹【ふ】く, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of an action. For verbs that describe changes in state (死【し】ぬ, 割【わ】れる, 溶【と】ける, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of a state. ...


61

~ていく and ~てくる (usually written in kana, since they are such common suffixes) can express both physical movement (such as in 行【い】 ってくる "go and come back") or a continued change in state. Since your question regards the latter usage, I'll restrict my answer to that. To use your examples: 雨【あめ】がやんできた。 The rain [over a period of time up until now] stopped. ...


26

しとく comes from しておく, which in turn comes from して置く. The literal translation of して置く would be, "do it, and then put [the results]". Basically it describes the act of doing something and storing the result of that so that when that result becomes useful, you can use it. EDIT: This literal meaning changed overtime (I presume) and しておく became to mean "do ...


19

Both means a continued change in state but with slight difference. 行く is for something that moves away from the speaker (not necessarily a physical movement), or away from another person's viewpoint that the speaker adopts. 来る is for something that moves towards the speaker (not necessarily a physical movement), or towards another person's viewpoint ...


19

っつ (sometimes つう) is a slang version of という (or an alternate version like といった, depending on the context). It's extremely informal. 冗談【じょうだん】だっつの。 (=冗談だ【じょうだん】といったの。) I said I was joking. [Idiomatically: Chill out, I was just kidding.] 彼【かれ】はやめたいっつってんだから、やめさせてやりゃいいじゃん。 (=彼【かれ】はやめたいといっているんだから、やめさせてやればいいじゃない。) He's saying he wants to quit, so why not ...


17

いただきました is past tense of いただく, which is a polite version of もらう, which means 'to receive'. 下さいました is past tense of 下さる, which is a polite version of くれる, which means 'to give'. They are different words but can be used in the same context as long as you correctly assign who is the giver and who is the receiver. But do take note that the emphasis of the ...


15

による modifies a noun, and both により and によって modify a verb or an adjective. により and によって are almost synonymous, although in the informal context, によって is more usual than により.


14

Like Mark says, it's short for 待っていて, which is the て-form of 待っている. I think it's a little softer than saying ちょっと待って, and since Yotsuba is not one of the family, the mother is being a little more polite. Saying ちょっと待って can sound a little short. The meaning changes with the extra て, but I can't describe how it changes well. Something like "please be there ...


14

@snailplane introduced this interesting article to me! 山下 好孝. テンスの「た」とアスペクトの「た」 (PDF) 初級日本語教科書では「~ましたか」の質問に対して,「~ていません」と答えるのを初級の学習者に導入する時は、「もう」と「まだ」を教える時である。(略) しかし、実際は、去年のことやもっと昔のことを開いても、「~ていません」「~てないです」という答え方をする人もいる。 The result of a survey in this article shows native speakers' preference between ~ていません and ~ませんでした in various situations. The result of ...


13

〜ていく means "will go/get". So it means from the current time onward. 〜てくる mean "came/got to be", as in from some time in the past up until now. → 〜てくる or 〜ていく → Note that with these two patterns, you usually write いく/くる in hiragana.


13

I think each verb is somewhat a case of its own, but generally speaking they all seem to relate somehow to the progressive nature of the ~ている form. If we get to the specifics, here are my impressions, based on my experience, intuition and grammatical understanding (all of them seem to point to the same thing in this case, which is good). Sorry, no ...


13

While 「問って」 may seem the logical conjugation, 「問う」 is actually irregular (see the Wikipedia entry for 不規則動詞). According to this article, 「問って」 is "almost never used". It appears therefore that 「問うて」 is correct in modern Japanese. In case you are wondering why, the author of the latter article hypothesizes that this irregular conjugation makes the dictionary ...


13

「Verb + てやる」 has two (very) different meanings/usages. 1) To offer to do something in a patronizing or condescending tone as to demand gratitude. 2) To (proactively) perform an action so as to prove one's ability to others. OP seems to be talking about #2 above. My own example sentences: 1) 「[心配]{しんぱい}するな。1[年]{ねん}くらいオレが[食]{た}べさせてやる。」 = "Don't worry. I'...


13

The verb is 捨てる, so its て-form is 捨てて, hence the compound form Vて+しまう becomes 捨ててしまう. If it were the casual ちゃう instead of しまう that you were using, that starts from the て-form too, but also contracts the て, so it would instead be 捨てちゃう, with just the one て. Perhaps that is where the confusion arose? Hope that helps!


12

First, the ~てしまう construction can convey a sense of regret, which the 切る verb suffix cannot: 花瓶を落として割ってしまった。 I dropped the vase and [regrettably] broke it. 花瓶を落として割り切った。 (unnatural) When used in constructions expressing the completion or finishing of an action, 切る tends to sound best with actions that can be measured on a scale, but there's a lot of ...


12

How do you know in English? The degree to which て/で represent causality versus things being simply sequential is ambiguous in nearly the same way that and is ambiguous in the same role in English. Consider sentences like The door was locked and I couldn't open it. I ate too much for lunch and skipped dinner. I brushed my teeth and left for ...


11

There is some Deep Magic going on here. Let me try to offer a theory which, hopefully, will not muddy the waters further. The ~て form of verbs (both positive and negative) implies a decision point. That is, at some point in time, you choose to do something or not to do something. Once this choice is made, it is irreversible. Consider 食べてください. In effect, ...


11

連れる (終止形) 連れて (て form) 連れていく (+行く) 連れていって (+て form of 行く) 連れてって (contraction)


11

Transitive vs. Intransitive. [開]{あ}ける (akeru) vs. [開]{あ}く (aku) You 開ける the door. vs. The door 開く by itself. 開ける conjugates to 開けて (akete) and 開く conjugates to 開いて (aite).


11

This question is trickier than it may appear to many J-learners and here is why. OP's first sentence means what s/he stated in English NOT only because 「て」 was used but also because the two activities happen to be those that could not take place simultaneously -- "brush teeth" and "eat". 「て」 can certainly signify the sequence of activities, but it can also ...


10

It's a shortening of って言うの! or って言っているの! and shows some irritation on the part of the speaker. "What I'm telling you is . . .!" There's some good explanations here: http://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/1847367.html


10

As you correctly understood, よりを戻す is an idiom meaning for a broken couple to get back together. [縒]{よ}る means “to twist threads together to make a thicker string.” [縒]{よ}りを戻す literally means to undo this process and turn a string into several threads apart. This may sound like the opposite of getting back together (certainly it does sound like the ...


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