18

@snailplane introduced this interesting article to me! 山下 好孝. テンスの「た」とアスペクトの「た」 (PDF) 初級日本語教科書では「~ましたか」の質問に対して,「~ていません」と答えるのを初級の学習者に導入する時は、「もう」と「まだ」を教える時である。(略) しかし、実際は、去年のことやもっと昔のことを開いても、「~ていません」「~てないです」という答え方をする人もいる。 The result of a survey in this article shows native speakers' preference between ~ていません and ~ませんでした in various situations. The result of ...


17

による modifies a noun, and both により and によって modify a verb or an adjective. により and によって are almost synonymous, although in the informal context, によって is more usual than により.


16

"Dropped" is not such an accurate word here as the 「て」 is optional in the first place. The te-form seems to enjoy a rockstar treatment in the world of Japanese-as-a-foreign-language. Learners love to talk about it, but what many rarely mention (or know about) is its informality. This is one of the things that took me by surprise when I started mingling ...


14

「Verb + てやる」 has two (very) different meanings/usages. 1) To offer to do something in a patronizing or condescending tone as to demand gratitude. 2) To (proactively) perform an action so as to prove one's ability to others. OP seems to be talking about #2 above. My own example sentences: 1) 「[心配]{しんぱい}するな。1[年]{ねん}くらいオレが[食]{た}べさせてやる。」 = "Don't worry. I'...


13

While 「問って」 may seem the logical conjugation, 「問う」 is actually irregular (see the Wikipedia entry for 不規則動詞). According to this article, 「問って」 is "almost never used". It appears therefore that 「問うて」 is correct in modern Japanese. In case you are wondering why, the author of the latter article hypothesizes that this irregular conjugation makes the dictionary ...


13

「私{わたし}がここを出{で}てったって待{ま}っててくれる人もいないし、受{う}け入{い}れてくれる家庭{かてい}もないし、たいした仕事{しごと}もないし、殆{ほとん}ど友{とも}だちもいないし。」 That is 100% correct and natural-sounding; It simply employs colloquial contractions. This sentence is written very informally as you could tell just from the multiple し's. 出てった = 出ていった って = とて (とて means the same thing as としても = "even if".) This is not ...


13

The verb is 捨てる, so its て-form is 捨てて, hence the compound form Vて+しまう becomes 捨ててしまう. If it were the casual ちゃう instead of しまう that you were using, that starts from the て-form too, but also contracts the て, so it would instead be 捨てちゃう, with just the one て. Perhaps that is where the confusion arose? Hope that helps!


12

連れる (終止形) 連れて (て form) 連れていく (+行く) 連れていって (+て form of 行く) 連れてって (contraction)


12

~くて is not an ending for a verb, it is the ~て form of an i-adjective. In your case the i-adjective formed by the verb 会う + the ending ~たい, where the ending ~たい is translated as "to want to". The ~て form of a verb, adjective or noun is used as a connective, which can sometimes be translated simply as "and", but sometimes this "and" can be interpreted to give ...


12

Transitive vs. Intransitive. [開]{あ}ける (akeru) vs. [開]{あ}く (aku) You 開ける the door. vs. The door 開く by itself. 開ける conjugates to 開けて (akete) and 開く conjugates to 開いて (aite).


12

How do you know in English? The degree to which て/で represent causality versus things being simply sequential is ambiguous in nearly the same way that and is ambiguous in the same role in English. Consider sentences like The door was locked and I couldn't open it. I ate too much for lunch and skipped dinner. I brushed my teeth and left for ...


11

止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!". I'm not sure where you get "rough intransitive" from. 止まる is intransitive already and 止める transitive. Although the imperative is usually considered too blunt for speech, the 止まれ road sign is usually the best example for a standard use of the imperative. The imperative for 五段 verbs (e.g. ...


11

This question is trickier than it may appear to many J-learners and here is why. OP's first sentence means what s/he stated in English NOT only because 「て」 was used but also because the two activities happen to be those that could not take place simultaneously -- "brush teeth" and "eat". 「て」 can certainly signify the sequence of activities, but it can also ...


11

The te-form of the verb やる is やって. やれって is not a te-form but やれ (the imperative form of やる, which can conclude a sentence on its own) followed by って. This って is a colloquial version of quotative-と, and it's used in relation to 言ってたぞ in the previous sentence. 死んだじいちゃんがいってたぞ。もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれって。 ≒ 死んだじいちゃんが「もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれ」と言ってたぞ。...


10

As you correctly understood, よりを戻す is an idiom meaning for a broken couple to get back together. [縒]{よ}る means “to twist threads together to make a thicker string.” [縒]{よ}りを戻す literally means to undo this process and turn a string into several threads apart. This may sound like the opposite of getting back together (certainly it does sound like the ...


10

I think that the other answers have already outlined the main differences between the two. ~てやる can be much less polite than ~てあげる, but both have the same basic meaning. In the book 問題な日本語 by 北{きた}原{はら}保{やす}雄{お}, it's stated that expressions like 猫に[餌]{えさ}をあげる and 花に水をあげる have become frequently used even by the older generation in recent times, even though ...


10

「くれて」 is the [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) of the verb 「くれる」. 「くれる」 can be used by itself to mean "to give" or "to let one have" as in 「ケンちゃんがあめをくれた。」 = "Ken-chan gave me candies." The other usage of 「くれる」, which is what you are clearly referring to, is to express that you, the speaker, are the receiver of an action by another person. For this, 「...


10

A (te-form) + は + B (masu-form) is a common pattern that describes someone repeatedly/habitually does B right after A as a paired action. See: 〜しては is this a grammar pattern? This set is often repeated for emphasis: A ては B、A ては B. 幼い頃、よく泣いては母親を困らせていた。 When I was young I always cried and annoyed my mother. Interestingly, AてはB as a whole sometimes behaves ...


10

According to 明鏡国語辞典: て ㊁〘終助〙 ❷ 《「…でして」「…まして」「…してしまって」の形で》原因や理由、状況を示して釈明を表す。「お子様限定のサービスでして。」「電車が遅れまして。」「遅くなりまして。」「つい忘れちゃって。」 The て in your example is used to express a cause, reason or explanation/vindication. 明日みんなで桜を見に行くんですが、先生もいっしょにいらっしゃらないかなと思いまして。 "Tomorrow we're going to see cherry blossoms and I'm (we're) wondering if you'd like to join us (...


10

「聞いてあるく」 In this context, 「あるく」 does not necessarily mean "to walk", which makes your question a far better one than you seem to think. The speaker might use other methods of transportation besides walking in order to conduct his investigation. Thus, 「あるく」 here is quite synonymous to 「まわる」 ("to go around"). If I said 「ボクはホットドッグが大好{だいす}きで、アメリカ中{じゅう}を食{た}...


9

I think it might be sense 3 of this Daijirin definition, which defines it as …するときはいつも…する, which I think can be defined as "whenever (you) do ..., (you) do ...": 僕はアルバイトしてはレコードばかり買っていたから、一日半働けばLP一枚買えるな、と思って働いていた。 Whenever I was working part-time, I was solely buying records, so I was working thinking that if I work for a day and a half, I can buy an LP. ...


9

There are two ways to form sentence conjunctions using 用言{ようげん} (inflectable words) in Japanese sentences: the て-form; e.g., 難しくて, 走って the 連用形{れんようけい}; e.g., 難しく, 走り It is called the 中止形{ちゅうしけい} when you use the 連用形 as a conjunction. Nuance-wise, using the 中止形 is a little more literary, so it can give a more formal feel to the sentence.


9

If sentence A has a comma like: A: 宿題をして、行かない生徒が多いです。 B: 宿題をしないで行く生徒が多いです。 then Sjiveru is right. However, it doesn't have a comma, so they have the same meaning. They mean "There are many students who go without doing their homework." The して行かない doesn't mean "don't go" but "don't do their homework."


9

「お/ご + Verb in 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なく 」 should be learned as a set phrase meaning "Please do not (verb)." The grammar used here is sort of special. One might say a phrase like 「お願{ねが}いいたします」 is implied or left unsaid at the end. This is an honorific form of a polite request rather than a plain imperative. The honorific お/ご at the beginning ...


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