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@snailplane introduced this interesting article to me! 山下 好孝. テンスの「た」とアスペクトの「た」 (PDF) 初級日本語教科書では「~ましたか」の質問に対して,「~ていません」と答えるのを初級の学習者に導入する時は、「もう」と「まだ」を教える時である。(略) しかし、実際は、去年のことやもっと昔のことを開いても、「~ていません」「~てないです」という答え方をする人もいる。 The result of a survey in this article shows native speakers' preference between ~ていません and ~ませんでした in various situations. The result of ...


13

While 「問って」 may seem the logical conjugation, 「問う」 is actually irregular (see the Wikipedia entry for 不規則動詞). According to this article, 「問って」 is "almost never used". It appears therefore that 「問うて」 is correct in modern Japanese. In case you are wondering why, the author of the latter article hypothesizes that this irregular conjugation makes the dictionary ...


13

The verb is 捨てる, so its て-form is 捨てて, hence the compound form Vて+しまう becomes 捨ててしまう. If it were the casual ちゃう instead of しまう that you were using, that starts from the て-form too, but also contracts the て, so it would instead be 捨てちゃう, with just the one て. Perhaps that is where the confusion arose? Hope that helps!


12

~くて is not an ending for a verb, it is the ~て form of an i-adjective. In your case the i-adjective formed by the verb 会う + the ending ~たい, where the ending ~たい is translated as "to want to". The ~て form of a verb, adjective or noun is used as a connective, which can sometimes be translated simply as "and", but sometimes this "and" can be interpreted to give ...


12

How do you know in English? The degree to which て/で represent causality versus things being simply sequential is ambiguous in nearly the same way that and is ambiguous in the same role in English. Consider sentences like The door was locked and I couldn't open it. I ate too much for lunch and skipped dinner. I brushed my teeth and left for ...


11

止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!". I'm not sure where you get "rough intransitive" from. 止まる is intransitive already and 止める transitive. Although the imperative is usually considered too blunt for speech, the 止まれ road sign is usually the best example for a standard use of the imperative. The imperative for 五段 verbs (e.g. ...


11

A (te-form) + は + B (masu-form) is a common pattern that describes someone repeatedly/habitually does B right after A as a paired action. See: 〜しては is this a grammar pattern? This set is often repeated for emphasis: A ては B、A ては B. 幼い頃、よく泣いては母親を困らせていた。 When I was young I always cried and annoyed my mother. Interestingly, AてはB as a whole sometimes behaves ...


11

The te-form of the verb やる is やって. やれって is not a te-form but やれ (the imperative form of やる, which can conclude a sentence on its own) followed by って. This って is a colloquial version of quotative-と, and it's used in relation to 言ってたぞ in the previous sentence. 死んだじいちゃんがいってたぞ。もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれって。 ≒ 死んだじいちゃんが「もしもおまえが女とであうことがあったらやさしくしてやれ」と言ってたぞ。...


10

As you correctly understood, よりを戻す is an idiom meaning for a broken couple to get back together. [縒]{よ}る means “to twist threads together to make a thicker string.” [縒]{よ}りを戻す literally means to undo this process and turn a string into several threads apart. This may sound like the opposite of getting back together (certainly it does sound like the ...


10

I think that the other answers have already outlined the main differences between the two. ~てやる can be much less polite than ~てあげる, but both have the same basic meaning. In the book 問題な日本語 by 北{きた}原{はら}保{やす}雄{お}, it's stated that expressions like 猫に[餌]{えさ}をあげる and 花に水をあげる have become frequently used even by the older generation in recent times, even though ...


10

I think it might be sense 3 of this Daijirin definition, which defines it as …するときはいつも…する, which I think can be defined as "whenever (you) do ..., (you) do ...": 僕はアルバイトしてはレコードばかり買っていたから、一日半働けばLP一枚買えるな、と思って働いていた。 Whenever I was working part-time, I was solely buying records, so I was working thinking that if I work for a day and a half, I can buy an LP. ...


10

According to 明鏡国語辞典: て ㊁〘終助〙 ❷ 《「…でして」「…まして」「…してしまって」の形で》原因や理由、状況を示して釈明を表す。「お子様限定のサービスでして。」「電車が遅れまして。」「遅くなりまして。」「つい忘れちゃって。」 The て in your example is used to express a cause, reason or explanation/vindication. 明日みんなで桜を見に行くんですが、先生もいっしょにいらっしゃらないかなと思いまして。 "Tomorrow we're going to see cherry blossoms and I'm (we're) wondering if you'd like to join us (...


9

There are two ways to form sentence conjunctions using 用言{ようげん} (inflectable words) in Japanese sentences: the て-form; e.g., 難しくて, 走って the 連用形{れんようけい}; e.g., 難しく, 走り It is called the 中止形{ちゅうしけい} when you use the 連用形 as a conjunction. Nuance-wise, using the 中止形 is a little more literary, so it can give a more formal feel to the sentence.


9

Yes, it is the -て form of ます. But it's a little more restricted, so you need to be a bit careful. To be polite, you normally only need to use the です/ます form for the final verb. Any other verbs can be in their normal -て form. But if you really want to be polite, then you can put the other verbs in their polite -ます form, obviously resulting in -まして. It is ...


9

If sentence A has a comma like: A: 宿題をして、行かない生徒が多いです。 B: 宿題をしないで行く生徒が多いです。 then Sjiveru is right. However, it doesn't have a comma, so they have the same meaning. They mean "There are many students who go without doing their homework." The して行かない doesn't mean "don't go" but "don't do their homework."


9

ワインを買っていく literally means "I'll buy wine and go". You'd say this to mean "I'll buy wine on my way to the place where you are (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to the place where you are)", "I'll buy wine on my way to somewhere (away from the hearer) (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to somewhere (away from the hearer))", or "I'll buy wine here(, and leave this ...


9

there is perhaps some historical connection between the く sound and い sound, either phonologically or semantically. I think the answer from blutorange addresses this. Maybe these two classes of words [〜い adjectives and 〜く verbs] diverged from the same class of words somehow? I'll disagree with blutorange about this part, as his answer is (I believe) ...


9

お気をつけください is a politer/more respectful way of saying 気をつけてください. It's the honorific 「お + noun form/連用形 + ください」 form. Examples: 「待ってください。」 "Please wait" (noun form/連用形 of 待つ is 待ち) → 「お+待ち+ください。」 「話してください。」 "Please speak" (noun form/連用形 of 話す is 話し) → 「お+話し+ください。」 「注意してください。」 "Please be careful" (for kango you generally use ご) → 「ご+注意+ください。」 Likewise: ...


8

As Earthling says 止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!" In this context the imperative is not "rude", it is quite simply an order.  This also explains why the て-form is not required. 止める is transitive. You would use it to say stop the car, but as in English, it is normal to refer to the person, just as you might say to a taxi ...


8

This usage of いる is unrelated to its usual function as a grammar element. 〜ている 食事を食べている "I am eating my meal" (progressive) "I eat meals" (habitual) ?? "I eat my meal and I am here (/I exist)" (conjunction) Reading #3 is never used because no one would ever need to say that. I included it only to show that the て-form does normally perform a ...


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