Questions tagged [terminology]

専門用語. Specialized words and phrases which cover specific concepts, fields, or phenomena.

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6
votes
2answers
381 views

Is there a name for this furigana convention

...where the furigana is a different "word"/"synonym" for the actual kanji in song lyrics, titles, etc.? A couple references to this: Why are some lyrics' words written in kanji whose usual reading ...
27
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2answers
3k views

Adjectives functioning both as イ- and ナ-adjective

This question has made me think about the class of adjectives, which can function both as イ- and as ナ-adjective, e.g. 大きい 大きな 小さい 小さな 真っ白い 真っ白な (etc.) 細かい 細かな 暖かい 暖かな 四角い 四角な (etc.) 柔らかい ...
4
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1answer
154 views

What is the difference between 買い溜め, 買い込む and 買い占める

I recently encountered 買い込む in the following sentence: 災害に備えて大量の水を買い込んだ。- I bought large quantities of water to prepare for disasters. (pretty straightforward) Searching through similar words I came ...
7
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3answers
2k views

Etymology and meaning of ukemi (受け身?) as part of 合気道

I practice 合気道. We do a lot of break falling that we call ukemi. I was led to believe that it meant safe escape from a technique. However, I started looking at the Japanese and found I only had part ...
6
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2answers
388 views

Terminology: Does the term 美化語 include all ご・お・etc. prefixes, or only ones outside of a 敬語 context?

This seems like a basic question, but I can't find an answer to it: As far as I know, 美化語 refers to the ご・お・etc. prefix on words for mere beautification. However, I have seen some ambiguity in its ...
7
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2answers
1k views

What is the difference between 外科 and 手術?

What is the difference between 外科 and 手術 ? According to 大辞林, they both mean "surgery". I've seen 外科 being used as part of larger names such as 脳神経外科学, while 手術 used with の before as in: ...
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0answers
65 views

Is おたくじじい a proper term to describe an old man who's into anime or is there another slang term for it?

So as the question states, is おたくじじい a proper term to describe an old geezer otaku or is there a better alternative?
6
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3answers
381 views

Could a translation error lead to squares to not be considered as rectangles?

I'm reading a certain set of kindergarten/lower primary maths textbooks that is written by North American authors for an Asian company. Whenever students are asked to identify the number of rectangles ...
7
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1answer
526 views

Is there a term for the rhetorical rephrasing of e.g. “良子はエビ天にかぶりつく。” into "エビ天にかぶりつく良子。”?

Here is an excerpt from a novel, AURA〜魔竜院光牙最後の闘い〜 by 田中ロミオ; note the sentence in bold. やがて盆に乗った天もりが二人前やってくる。反射的に炸裂した良子の手づかみを阻止し、箸を持たせた。 「非論理的工具」 「うるさいなー。みんな頑張って慣れたんだよ」 悪戦苦闘しながらも、そばには目もくれずにエビ天にかぶりつく良子。...
4
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2answers
219 views

Is there a term that covers both wasei eigo and gairaigo?

Is there a term that covers both wasei eigo ("Japanese-made English") and gairaigo (words from foreign languages)? Can you call them カタカナ語?
1
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2answers
116 views

comparison of 受身形 and 受動態 both meaning “passive voice”?

(.) Both Japanese and English can construct sentences such that the main verb is either active or passive. There are two words for "passive voice" in Japanese 受身形 and 受動態. I know that 受身形 ...
13
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1answer
7k views

Is there a particular name for the rows and columns of the hiragana/katakana charts?

When i see Hiragana/Katakana Charts i see them always take a form similar to this i see a logical pattern here (except for ん but it's a one off). i am wondering is there a particular name for the ...
0
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1answer
86 views

What does “stem” mean in “Adj (na) stem”

In A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar, I have (at least tried to) read the grammatical terms and list of abbreviations very carefully, but maybe something is missing. Or maybe I missed something. ...
19
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3answers
41k views

What's the difference between Ichidan/Godan and Ru/U verbs classification?

I've come across two different ways (at least, apparently for me) to classify verbs. Please note that this question is fundamentally different from Verb classifications by japanese learners. The first ...
12
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4answers
696 views

What do we call things that are neither kana nor kanji?

I was wondering Is there a Japanese name (or term) for written stuff that are neither kana nor kanji? By that, I mean stuff like: ゠ (ダブルハイフン, for indicating the dash in foreign words) ・ (ぽつ, for ...
8
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3answers
645 views

What exactly is a ‘cambay’?

I am editing a text in English that doesn’t really have anything to do with Japan, but with India. In it, there is a letter from 1798 (translated from the original Danish) which contains the following:...
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1answer
79 views

How do you say 〜て form in Japanese?

I’ve tried to google this but I end up with explanations about how to use the ーて form. I want to know how to call it in Japanese, you know, like a noun is 名詞, now do you call the ーて form in ...
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0answers
167 views

Why is the Japanese term for grammatical case 「格」? How did this translation come to be?

From Google's definition of 格: きまり。法則。標準。  「格式・格言・合格・別格・破格・規格・本格・古格・適格・律令格式(りつりょうきゃくしき)」 《名・造》地位。身分。程度。  「格が違う」 方形に組みあわせた材。  「骨格・格子(こうし)・格天井(ごうてんじょう)」 くる。いたる。とおる。きわめる。  「格物致知」 ...
4
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2answers
282 views

How do you say 町 (in addresses) in English?

I know that in a normal context, 町 means town. But I'm pretty sure it's different in Japanese addresses, where it typically goes like: __県__市__区__町______ I know that 県 means prefecture, 市 means ...
6
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3answers
579 views

Why do English speaking learners of Japanese use term “volitional” to refer to 未然形+う?

There are four distinct cases of 未然形+う: intention, plus three of irrealis moods: hortative, dubitative, presumptive, . Very often Japanese grammar books refer to all of them as volitional form. ...
8
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2answers
706 views

A name for common words that use uncommon kanji?

I didn't see a duplicate for this in the similar questions, so here goes. Is there either a list of words like this, or a name for this type of word (made of two very rare/complex kanji, but the word ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Do Oda Nobunaga, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and Toyotomi Hideyoshi have a collective title in Japanese?

When reading up on Oda Nobunaga, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and Toyotomi Hideyoshi I often see them referred to as the "great unifiers" but I can't find what (if anything) Japanese people call them? Is there ...
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2answers
496 views

What does 正規品 mean?

Recently, I came across this word: 正規品{せいきひん} None of online dictionaries that I know had registered the term at all. I could not find such word in search result of jisho.org or search result of ...
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0answers
107 views

Japanese Name of the て-form without the て

While reading this old question, I began wondering what the て-form without the て (i.e. 書いて→書い、読んで→読ん、行って→行っ) is called in Japanese. Wikipedia calls it 2つ目の連用形. Some other places call it 連用形の促音便形 or ...
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1answer
2k views

What are the Japanese names of the columns in a Kana chart? (Vowels, K, S, T…)

Here is a typical Kana chart presented in gojūon order: In English, I refer to the first column in the chart as the 'vowels' and I refer to every other column in the chart with the first letter of ...
3
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1answer
155 views

What is the term for “Past Tense Negative Form” in Japanese?

Doing my Japanese practices today, and I've noticed that Present Tense: 現在形 Negative Form: 否定形 Past Tense: 過去形 And I wondered what Negative Past tense is in Japanese. Thought it's an easy ...
3
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2answers
919 views

Japanese Term for “Cutscene”?

As in, the kind you would see in a video game. Do people just use カットシーン, or is there some specific term?
0
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1answer
99 views

How is it written deposit money by coin? [closed]

Recently I want to change my massive coin into money . I heard about I can change coin to bank account money at ATM in Tokyo , so I went to bank ATM . But I couldn't choose English language on screen ...
1
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1answer
199 views

Difference between the words kakemono and kakejiku

Does anyone reading this site know of any nuance(s) differentiating these two words? Numerous online sites say that kakejiku is more commonly used, but I have found no information about whether the ...
3
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1answer
144 views

How would one translate 綺麗 (きれい) in this context?

I am currently translating some content regarding Aikido, and have been getting stuck on how to translate 綺麗 (きれい) in the following context: しっかりとした、綺麗な半身を作ることを心がけて下さい。 It's discussing a bodily ...
2
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1answer
180 views

だ and です godan or ichidan

Can we say, that だ and です are godan verbs with ru-ending, because they are just simplyfied versions of である and であります?
2
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1answer
95 views

Meaning of 水洗式 other than flush toilet

In an article about penetrant testing (浸透探傷検査) I found the following sentence: 浸透液は水洗式でハケ塗りとし,極力溶接部以外に浸透液が付着しないようにすること. In this kind of test, a penetrant liquid is used on a surface (in this case ...
3
votes
1answer
10k views

What word describes the concept of worldwide time zones?

The world is covered in the necessary evil known in English as "time zones". Given that, historically, it originated in England (some 300 or so years ago), the concept of a time zone was probably not ...
6
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1answer
428 views

Does 旧車 clearly imply “classic car” or will it simply mean “old car” to many Japanese speakers?

Now on my latest trip in Japan in spring 2019 I've noticed many more classic cars around than I expected. In English "classic car" is a somewhat vague term but is often used for old cars that have ...
7
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3answers
6k views

Expressing difference between “fluent” and “native speaker” in Japanese

I want to explain the difference between the English linguistic terms "fluent" and "native speaker". I could do this in English, but I'd also like to know if it's possible to do so in Japanese. To be ...
2
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2answers
240 views

Confused on verb conjuation U-verbs ru-verbs or godan ones?

I am doing japaneese N5 lessons for second time and I get REALLY confused. As far as I know there are 3 categories of verbs: Irregular verbs Ichidan verbs Godan verbs But the sensei tells us that ...
7
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2answers
277 views

What is a grammatical terminology to describe the group of the refrain of two syllable words like pera-pera, don-don, iki-iki?

Japanese language have a special group of words which repeat mostly two syllable word like pera pera, para para, jito jito, suku suku, aka aka, zuki zuki – you can name it, that are used adverbially. ...
5
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2answers
349 views

Are 修飾語 in Japanese different from 'modifier' in English?

I'm a native English speaker and taking Kumon's Japanese for 小学校1年生 class (which is an adventure lol), and it's trying to teach me about 修飾語 right now. I looked up 修飾語 and everything I can find is ...
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0answers
93 views

What is the term for special words that don't use standard readings or regular modifications? [duplicate]

Words like 大人、下手、上手... as おとな, へた, じょうず. What is the name for terms of this type? Not including: Kanji that don't use their specified readings. The answers for おみやげ don't answer the ...
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1answer
119 views

the meaning and use of the word 殺素 today

I'm trying to understand some paper about Udagawa Youan and chemistry in Japan and I have a big problem with 殺素. It's means all chemistry elements which can kill or mayby only radioactive? Or mayby it'...
2
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1answer
69 views

Popularity of ポッド as a abbreviation of ポッドキャスト

I know that many times loanwords are abbreviated in Japanese as a subset of their original length (ex: アイス for アイスクリーム). Recently I heard someone say that ポッド was an abbreviation for ポッドキャスト and this ...
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0answers
169 views

What is a term for an attitude/life that eschews luxury or comfort?

A while back I had read an article (in English) online about an Japanese ceramics artist and his work, with the writer describing the artist's rather spartan furnishings as a result of his attitude or ...
5
votes
2answers
285 views

Is there an opposite of gairaigo, covering both kango and wago?

Is there a term that means that something isn't gairaigo, words recently derived from (predominantly European) foreign languages? For example, I'd like to say that 踊り is a non-gairaigo word, which ...
6
votes
2answers
393 views

Word choice for iteration and repetitive processing in computer science

I've looked around online and even asked a native speaker developer friend of mine, but I seem to get different answers everywhere I go. Here are the relevant words/phrases I've seen so far: 繰り返し処理 ...
6
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1answer
2k views

How do you tell your parents and siblings you love them?

In English we describe the affection you have for your parents and siblings as "love", however this is vary different from the feelings of romantic love, things like limerence and sexual arousal, ...
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3answers
336 views

Does the term 女性語 identify words only used by women?

Women speak with certain word differences when compared with men and I want to verify if this term is used to describe them. Thank you.
8
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2answers
803 views

Grammatically, is a 体言止めの文 a “Japanese sentence”?

In Japanese, a 文【ぶん】 is basically anything which is delimited by periods (マル) or question/exclamation marks. For example, let's say there is a paragraph like this in the middle of the main text of a ...
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1answer
2k views

What are the most common words for “to attack”? [closed]

The concept of "attacking" is a vary broad one, with a lot of nuance to it. What are the most common/practical words used to describe attacking in Japanese; and what are the nuances to each? Also, I'...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Referring to Group of Differentiated Objects

This is a bit esoteric, but it is something that came up recently when I was thinking about how to translate a piece of writing I have been working on for a while into Japanese. In any case, one of ...
10
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3answers
2k views

Is 土方 a common term for a “construction worker”?

In American English "construction worker" can refer to any manual labor worker at a construction site. Is 土方{どかた} a common term to refer to such person in Japan?