Questions tagged [subsidiary-verbs]

補助動詞. Verbs such as いる, おく, ある, いく, くる, and しまう, which can follow the 〜て form of a verb with special grammaticalized meanings. Not to be confused with 助動詞(じょどうし) "auxiliary verbs", which are inflecting function words or endings such as 〜ない and 〜ます. We use the translation "subsidiary verbs" on this site to avoid confusion.

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73
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3answers
30k views

Difference between -ていく and -てくる

Can someone explain the differences between v-ていく and v-てくる for me. I know that they both express some kind of ongoing action (like a place getting crowded). For example, what's the difference between ...
18
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1answer
3k views

What is a subsidiary verb?

What is a subsidiary verb? Could someone please explain it and give some examples of its application?
14
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3answers
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~ておく or ~とく for preparation (conjugation and nuance)

A few quick questions regarding ~ておく and the casual form ~とく Firstly, when changing from ~ておく to the more casual ~とく I'm assuming the verb is first conjugated to the ~て form then the ~て is dropped ...
14
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between 歩んでいった and 歩んできた?

私はまっすぐな人生を歩んできた。 私はまっすぐな人生を歩んでいった。 Could someone explain to me the difference between the two? Thanks a lot! Edit: I still find ていった confusing even after reading the other post. So ...
13
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4answers
5k views

the logic behind “te” in “chotto matte te”

When someone says: chotto matte te, why does the te mean "... and I'll be back shortly". What's the logic behind it? Why aren't there special expressions such as chotto matte X, where X could mean "...
12
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1answer
3k views

what does てやる mean when it is not used for giving?

Okay, according to the (monolingual) dictionary that I use, てやる is used to indicate "doing something with strong will or determination" (my translation) e.g. 飛び降りてやる! But this definition seems a ...
12
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1answer
26k views

How do you say “I have been […]”?

How would I say “I have been [...]” as in “I have been studying Japanese.” or “I have been working at an office”? If I remember correctly it is a particular verb conjugation and this would be ...
11
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2answers
924 views

What does the “~ておく” mean in “任せておく”?

Good afternoon all, From what I understand, "~ておく" basically has 4 meanings: to do something for a purpose / reason used as a softener (source) to do.. for now or for the time being (source, source),...
10
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2answers
732 views

「しまう」 as an auxiliary verb

I feel like I always see 「しまう」 at the end of sentences (not the verb "to put away"). I saw some examples here on Weblio. どうしても写真は実物より劣ってしまう。 Pictures really don't do it justice. ...
10
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3answers
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How ~てある and ~ておいた differs?

晩ご飯が作ってある Dinner has been made. (intentional) 晩ご飯を作っておいた. (I) made dinner (so I can eat it). They seem quite the same. Btw what are some cases in which -てあった are used? I can't recreate one.
10
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1answer
477 views

Existence verbs in the Kansai Dialect

In this part of this Wikipedia article, it states In other areas such as Hyogo and Mie, いる /iru/ is hardly used and おる /oru/ does not have the negative usage. What I want to know is, does this ...
9
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2answers
12k views

What does verb + くなる imply or mean?

I was talking to a person and they used: 大切にしたくなるよ。 Does that mean I have come to cherish or something like that?
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773 views

Likely Sentences (Nuance in use of 〜てもらう vs Passive form)

Our professor gave us some problems where you are suppose to circle which statement the person is more likely to say. Below is an example. おまわりさん よく道を聞かれます。 よく道を聞いてもらいます。 I think this means ...
8
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4answers
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What's the difference between ~てある and ~た (past form)?

As I understand it てある is rather different to ている in that it refers to a resultant state rather than an ongoing action. However I wonder, what then is the practical difference between a resultant ...
8
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3answers
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Why is 来る spelled with kanji and する is not?

来る and する are two irregular and most commonly used verbs. From my observations, 来る is spelled with kanji. Even though there is a kanji version of する 為る it is usually not used and I wonder why. Are ...
8
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2answers
533 views

ておく → とく in other contexts; similar 2-kana to 1-kana shortcuts?

Recently I learned that おいておいて ("leave it there") can be shortened in casual speech (or speech to subordinates) to おいといて. (ておく → とく). I also learned that this can be used for any verb attached to ておく ...
8
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2answers
725 views

Which verb receives a negation in a Japanese sentence?

I can say 歩いて渡る which translates to "to cross by walking". However, if I would like to say "I am not going to cross by walking, but by some other means", would I say 歩かないで渡る or 歩いて渡らない? There are ...
8
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1answer
993 views

Cohortative ましょう with and without the auxiliary construction ~てみる

In "何かしてみましょう。" meaning "Let's try/do something.", what is the literal translation of "してみましょう"? I've got "して" means "doing" and "みましょう" means "let's watch or let's?". How is "してみましょう" different ...
7
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3answers
981 views

すぎ to mean too much but in a good way

From what I understand, すぎ means too much, till the point it is bad. For example 食べすぎ would mean "eating way too much (and it's not good)". So how would one say "eating too much (and it's good)"? Can ...
7
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1answer
694 views

Is 来おった the 連用形{れんようけい} of くる plus おる → おった?

I came across the following dialogue, which occurs right as the hero arrives: 「やっと来おったか。」 I'm not sure how to parse 来おった. Is it 来{き} + 居{お}る? If so, what exactly does this form mean? Do other ...
7
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1answer
655 views

Meaning of 崩れかける

I'm having some difficulties understanding the construction 崩れかけた in 博士たちは崩れかけた門をくぐり、中へ入っていった。 I couldn't find it as a single word, so I take it is constructed from 崩れる and かける. My guess is that it'...
7
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1answer
185 views

Meaning of 降ってくる when talking about voice

山田さんの声が後ろから降ってきたのだ。 山田's voice came falling from behind. What is the nuance implied by 降る here?
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2answers
267 views

Are there any ways to know whether Verbてくる is about time or space?

Are there any ways to know whether Verbてくる is about time or space ? My friend told me that when the verb involves changing from a state to another state, ~てくる is usually about time, when there's ...
6
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2answers
403 views

How to interprete this conditional phrase

The following sentence: 新しい発明をした場合、特許を取っておかないと、すぐにその アイデア を使われてしまう。 The problem stems from the fact that I can't handle some elements in this sentence and therefore also have issues determining ...
6
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2answers
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What is なく・ない and why is it used?

This question showed the following: 言わない (negative) 言わなく・ない (negative+negative) 言わなく・なかった (negative+negative+past) I've never seen this conjugation before. Why would you have a negative + negative?...
6
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1answer
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Why is しまいました needed here?

According to a grammar book I'm reading, the sentence "宿題をしないで、学校に出掛けてしまいました" translates into "He went off to school without doing [his] homework." However, I do not understand either why (or even if) ...
6
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2answers
945 views

besides meaning of preparation, what is other meaning of Te Oku

I have learned that Te Oku means "to do something in advance for preparation". However I have encountered this sentence : その紙は いらないのですてておいてください This paper is not needed, please throw it away. I ...
6
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3answers
4k views

Difference between 帰って来る and 帰る

Consider the following two sentences: うちへ帰って来ます。 うちへ帰ります。 What's the difference between these two sentences? How does the bolded part affect the meaning?
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1answer
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When to use 出て来る over 出る

Here is a sentence from the children's story ももたろう, describing when the child appears from within the giant peach. 桃の中から赤ちゃんが出てきました。 My dictionary lists 出て来る as meaning "to come out" with ...
6
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2answers
821 views

落としちまった - what form is this?

The phrase is pretty simple: デスノート 落{お}としちまった Which is obviously, "I dropped my Death Note". The verb (and the kanji) is for おとす or おちる, which is "to drop" or "to let fall", yet this is a ...
5
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2answers
215 views

Use of くれる with 信じる

「...そんなはずがあるか」と信じてくれなかった。 ...Is such a thing to be expected? He didn't believe me. I'm used to くれる being used to express the idea that the verb was done for the benefit of the speaker. I don't see ...
5
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1answer
610 views

Meaning of「〜てみたいと思います」

I've gathered that と思う means to think about but isn't it a little redundant to add the みたい? 彼らに聞いてみたいと思います。 The みたい adds the sense of looking like or seeming but so does 思う so I don't quite ...
5
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1answer
1k views

しとけ and sentence translation

I've some trouble with the translation of this sentence: どこにも行くなここにしとけ I don't know what しとけ stands for. Could you please tell me how would you translate this sentence? Something like: You ...
5
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2answers
229 views

Is it possible ~ておく in continuous state (~ている)?

I'm curious now since I read in Tae Kim's Guide that ておく means to prepare/do something for the future. So for example, if one is currently in the progress of studying for the future would it be this? ...
5
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1answer
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「〜てもらおう」の意味は何ですか。

「〜てもらう」の文法は知っていますが、この下の文章の「〜てもらおう」の意味がわかりませんでした。 例)「一度に全部わかってもらおうなんて、思っちゃいない。」 この「〜てもらおう」を説明していただけませんか。 よろしくお願いします。
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2answers
238 views

Just like “ら抜き” is there also “い抜き” such as “見ている” --> (い抜く) --> “見てる”?

With ichidan verbs, you create potential, and passive voice, as such: 食べられません If you want to get slangy, you can do "ら抜き" as such: 食べれません So, is there い抜き as well? 長い間ロンドンに住んでて、...
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1answer
380 views

~te + oku vs plain masu form

Good evenings folks, Currently I'm here in Tokyo learning Japanese for about 2 months now from scratch, and our sensei is teaching us N4 level grammar structures already. My question is, what's the ...
5
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1answer
316 views

grammar of ~ちゃいましょう

I have a question about the following conversation. A: 駅はまだですか?ずいぶん歩いたみたいだけど。 B: 近くの三つのデパートがバーゲン中で、こんなに混んでいるのですよ。 A: そんなに歩きましたっけ。 B: と、思うのですが、ほら、やっと交差点についたところじゃないですか。 A: タクシーに乗っちゃいましょうか。...
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1answer
155 views

Regarding chau and cha contractions, what happens in -って and -んで cases?

When contracting -てしまう or -でしまう to -ちゃう or -ちゃ, what happens in the -って and -んで cases? For example, does 洗ってしまう become あらちゃう or あらっちゃう? Similarly, does 喚んでしまわない become 喚んじまわない or 喚じまわない? I'm trying ...
5
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1answer
141 views

Difference between 尽くす and きれる

I know both 尽くす and きれる mean to do something fully/completely eg(these are my own examples) 色々やり尽くす。(I have tried all the methods or I have exhausted all the methods.) generally I have heard of ...
5
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1answer
96 views

I'm wrestling with the first って in 借金が雪だるま式に増えてってるって噂だよ

The sentence in question: 借金が雪だるま式に増えてってるって噂だよ My best guess is that the first って is a contracted from of いる. Whatever it is that we're addressing seems to be suffering from a financial crisis. ...
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2answers
539 views

What particles and what verb forms to use when attached to もらう or くれる

I was speaking with a friend and at one point in making plans said something like: 田中さんに連絡されてもらった後で… but was corrected to: 連絡してもらった後で. I understand how the particles and such work with the もらう ...
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1answer
4k views

Different ways of saying “X continues / keep doing X”

I am trying to figure out the differences between all of these forms listed below. The examples are all part of these two pages: http://japanesetest4you.com/jlpt-n3-grammar-list/ http://...
5
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3answers
891 views

Usage differences between てしまう and ちゃう

"〜ちゃう" is often simply described as the casual/contracted/etc. form of "〜てしまう", with no further explanation given. This would seem to imply that in terms of meaning they are identical, with only ...
5
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1answer
249 views

つけておいてください translation

An example is the following: 電気がついています。けしましょうか。 いいえ、つけておいてください。 The question is, can I translate the last part as "Please, leave them turned on", so that the whole translation is: ...
4
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2answers
494 views

What does 'ワインを買っていくよ。' mean?

I am very confused about the meaning of the expressions 'ていく' and 'てくる' and seems that every website I look has a different explanation. Translations that I think are good: 'Go in order to buy wine'; '...
4
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4answers
2k views

What is the meaning of 座っておいで?

The おいで after the Te-form seems to convey a kind of command. Could you explain the usages of this word, what part of speech is it and how it differs from the other kinds of commands?
4
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1answer
285 views

Help me understand 言ってみただけだよ

I found this sentence 言ってみただけだよ and it is translated to I'm just tried to say / I'm just saying I don't understand why and I have a feeling it's because of みた. I know that みた is "to see" in ...
4
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1answer
293 views

Could there be an 'invisible' “should” in this sentence?

携帯番号交換しとくんだったな。。。 The sentence means "We have interchanged phone numbers in advance." This makes no sense with the story unless I add "should" before the "have". So could ~teoku's meaning also ...
4
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5answers
11k views

How to use あげます、もらいます、and くれます

I have yet to find a good source that covers this in full. But I've seen them being used in places where no giving or receiving is taking place. For example, "写真をとってもらえませんか?" and another one I ...