Questions tagged [subsidiary-verbs]

補助動詞. Verbs such as いる, おく, ある, いく, くる, and しまう, which can follow the 〜て form of a verb with special grammaticalized meanings. Not to be confused with 助動詞(じょどうし) "auxiliary verbs", which are inflecting function words or endings such as 〜ない and 〜ます. We use the translation "subsidiary verbs" on this site to avoid confusion.

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73
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3answers
31k views

Difference between -ていく and -てくる

Can someone explain the differences between v-ていく and v-てくる for me. I know that they both express some kind of ongoing action (like a place getting crowded). For example, what's the difference between ...
14
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3answers
9k views

~ておく or ~とく for preparation (conjugation and nuance)

A few quick questions regarding ~ておく and the casual form ~とく Firstly, when changing from ~ておく to the more casual ~とく I'm assuming the verb is first conjugated to the ~て form then the ~て is dropped ...
19
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1answer
4k views

What is a subsidiary verb?

What is a subsidiary verb? Could someone please explain it and give some examples of its application?
8
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2answers
579 views

ておく → とく in other contexts; similar 2-kana to 1-kana shortcuts?

Recently I learned that おいておいて ("leave it there") can be shortened in casual speech (or speech to subordinates) to おいといて. (ておく → とく). I also learned that this can be used for any verb attached to ておく ...
11
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2answers
935 views

What does the “~ておく” mean in “任せておく”?

Good afternoon all, From what I understand, "~ておく" basically has 4 meanings: to do something for a purpose / reason used as a softener (source) to do.. for now or for the time being (source, source),...
12
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1answer
3k views

What does てやる mean when it is not used for giving?

Okay, according to the (monolingual) dictionary that I use, てやる is used to indicate "doing something with strong will or determination" (my translation) e.g. 飛び降りてやる! But this definition ...
10
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2answers
750 views

「しまう」 as an auxiliary verb

I feel like I always see 「しまう」 at the end of sentences (not the verb "to put away"). I saw some examples here on Weblio. どうしても写真は実物より劣ってしまう。 Pictures really don't do it justice. ...
10
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3answers
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How ~てある and ~ておいた differs?

晩ご飯が作ってある Dinner has been made. (intentional) 晩ご飯を作っておいた. (I) made dinner (so I can eat it). They seem quite the same. Btw what are some cases in which -てあった are used? I can't recreate one.
5
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1answer
2k views

しとけ and sentence translation

I've some trouble with the translation of this sentence: どこにも行くなここにしとけ I don't know what しとけ stands for. Could you please tell me how would you translate this sentence? Something like: You ...
14
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between 歩んでいった and 歩んできた?

私はまっすぐな人生を歩んできた。 私はまっすぐな人生を歩んでいった。 Could someone explain to me the difference between the two? Thanks a lot! Edit: I still find ていった confusing even after reading the other post. So ...
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4answers
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What's the difference between ~てある and ~た (past form)?

As I understand it てある is rather different to ている in that it refers to a resultant state rather than an ongoing action. However I wonder, what then is the practical difference between a resultant ...
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Understanding てくる in these sentences

Coming across lines such as (two separate contexts): 「ご飯をよそってきて食べなよ」 and 「そんなに驚かないで。頭を冷やすために下でお茶でも淹れてくるよ」 I'm having trouble understanding the usage of 来る in both of these sentences. I was ...
5
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2answers
249 views

Just like “ら抜き” is there also “い抜き” such as “見ている” --> (い抜く) --> “見てる”?

With ichidan verbs, you create potential, and passive voice, as such: 食べられません If you want to get slangy, you can do "ら抜き" as such: 食べれません So, is there い抜き as well? 長い間ロンドンに住んでて、...
10
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1answer
488 views

Existence verbs in the Kansai Dialect

In this part of this Wikipedia article, it states In other areas such as Hyogo and Mie, いる /iru/ is hardly used and おる /oru/ does not have the negative usage. What I want to know is, does this ...
12
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1answer
27k views

How do you say “I have been […]”?

How would I say “I have been [...]” as in “I have been studying Japanese.” or “I have been working at an office”? If I remember correctly it is a particular verb conjugation and this would be ...
9
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2answers
13k views

What does verb + くなる imply or mean?

I was talking to a person and they used: 大切にしたくなるよ。 Does that mean I have come to cherish or something like that?
4
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4answers
2k views

What is the meaning of 座っておいで?

The おいで after the Te-form seems to convey a kind of command. Could you explain the usages of this word, what part of speech is it and how it differs from the other kinds of commands?
4
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1answer
294 views

Could there be an 'invisible' “should” in this sentence?

携帯番号交換しとくんだったな。。。 The sentence means "We have interchanged phone numbers in advance." This makes no sense with the story unless I add "should" before the "have". So could ~teoku's meaning also ...
7
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3answers
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Difference between 帰って来る and 帰る

Consider the following two sentences: うちへ帰って来ます。 うちへ帰ります。 What's the difference between these two sentences? How does the bolded part affect the meaning?
5
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2answers
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Use of くれる with 信じる

「...そんなはずがあるか」と信じてくれなかった。 ...Is such a thing to be expected? He didn't believe me. I'm used to くれる being used to express the idea that the verb was done for the benefit of the speaker. I don't see ...
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2answers
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Some questions regarding ~てくる (edited)

Up to now my understanding of ~てくる has been very vague. No matter how many explanations I read, in practice my translations always feel uneasy. Here are a few unresolved doubts I have: From what I ...
4
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2answers
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What does 'ワインを買っていくよ。' mean?

I am very confused about the meaning of the expressions 'ていく' and 'てくる' and seems that every website I look has a different explanation. Translations that I think are good: 'Go in order to buy wine'; '...
2
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2answers
252 views

Verb in ている form ends with しまう

I'm confused by this sentence: わたしが答える前に急いで川のふちへ歩いていってしまった。 Before I answered he had hurriedly walked to the river side???. 歩いている means walking i.e. progressive form but しまう denotes ...
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1answer
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When to use 出て来る over 出る

Here is a sentence from the children's story ももたろう, describing when the child appears from within the giant peach. 桃の中から赤ちゃんが出てきました。 My dictionary lists 出て来る as meaning "to come out" with ...
8
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2answers
729 views

Which verb receives a negation in a Japanese sentence?

I can say 歩いて渡る which translates to "to cross by walking". However, if I would like to say "I am not going to cross by walking, but by some other means", would I say 歩かないで渡る or 歩いて渡らない? There are ...
5
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3answers
922 views

Usage differences between てしまう and ちゃう

"〜ちゃう" is often simply described as the casual/contracted/etc. form of "〜てしまう", with no further explanation given. This would seem to imply that in terms of meaning they are identical, with only ...
7
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1answer
712 views

Is 来おった the 連用形{れんようけい} of くる plus おる → おった?

I came across the following dialogue, which occurs right as the hero arrives: 「やっと来おったか。」 I'm not sure how to parse 来おった. Is it 来{き} + 居{お}る? If so, what exactly does this form mean? Do other ...
7
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1answer
656 views

Meaning of 崩れかける

I'm having some difficulties understanding the construction 崩れかけた in 博士たちは崩れかけた門をくぐり、中へ入っていった。 I couldn't find it as a single word, so I take it is constructed from 崩れる and かける. My guess is that it'...
5
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1answer
339 views

grammar of ~ちゃいましょう

I have a question about the following conversation. A: 駅はまだですか?ずいぶん歩いたみたいだけど。 B: 近くの三つのデパートがバーゲン中で、こんなに混んでいるのですよ。 A: そんなに歩きましたっけ。 B: と、思うのですが、ほら、やっと交差点についたところじゃないですか。 A: タクシーに乗っちゃいましょうか。...
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2answers
452 views

Meaning of しっかり頑張ってこい

I would like to know what しっかり頑張ってこい means and if it has any difference (any extra nuance) with がんばって. Also: Why is こい (command form of くる) used? In which situation do you use this expression?
4
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1answer
379 views

Help parsing a sentence with possibly embed relatives

“はっきりとしてくれないわたしが好きな人”より“はっきりとしているわたしを好きな人”を憎からず はっきりとして=Be clear くれない=not give to me わたしが好きな人=The person I like [はっきりとしてくれない]>わたしが好きな人 so はっきりとしてくれない modifies わたし or はっきりとしてくれない modifies 人 The ...
2
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3answers
445 views

What is an example of how the 推量の助動詞 「む」 can be used to mean 反語?

One of the listed meanings of the 推量の助動詞 「む」 on Wikipedia is that of 反語, which I understand to mean "saying the opposite of what one means for rhetorical emphasis" in this context (as opposed to just ...
0
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1answer
273 views

What does 覆ってみせる mean?

As far as I can tell from the components, it means to show yourself hiding which makes no sense. Context is the sentence XはYに顔を覆ってみせる
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3answers
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Why is 来る spelled with kanji and する is not?

来る and する are two irregular and most commonly used verbs. From my observations, 来る is spelled with kanji. Even though there is a kanji version of する 為る it is usually not used and I wonder why. Are ...
6
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2answers
871 views

落としちまった - what form is this?

The phrase is pretty simple: デスノート 落{お}としちまった Which is obviously, "I dropped my Death Note". The verb (and the kanji) is for おとす or おちる, which is "to drop" or "to let fall", yet this is a ...
5
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1answer
160 views

Regarding chau and cha contractions, what happens in -って and -んで cases?

When contracting -てしまう or -でしまう to -ちゃう or -ちゃ, what happens in the -って and -んで cases? For example, does 洗ってしまう become あらちゃう or あらっちゃう? Similarly, does 喚んでしまわない become 喚んじまわない or 喚じまわない? I'm trying ...
5
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1answer
97 views

I'm wrestling with the first って in 借金が雪だるま式に増えてってるって噂だよ

The sentence in question: 借金が雪だるま式に増えてってるって噂だよ My best guess is that the first って is a contracted from of いる. Whatever it is that we're addressing seems to be suffering from a financial crisis. ...
5
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2answers
558 views

What particles and what verb forms to use when attached to もらう or くれる

I was speaking with a friend and at one point in making plans said something like: 田中さんに連絡されてもらった後で… but was corrected to: 連絡してもらった後で. I understand how the particles and such work with the もらう ...
4
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1answer
672 views

のために + ~てあげる/くれる

I'm not sure, but I think there is an error in Genki's Grammar point of Lesson 16: In the first grammar point they explain ~てあげる/くれる and say that if a verb doesn't have a "beneficiaries part" like 〇〇...
4
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1answer
257 views

Meaning of auxiliary ゆく/いく in this context

While translating a song, I've stumbled upon the following sentence: 落ちた希望を拾って明日に繋いでゆけば Which got me wondering what the difference between the following two is: 落ちた希望を拾って明日に繋いでゆけば 落ちた希望を拾って明日に繋げば ...
3
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2answers
341 views

ている pronunciation/internalization

How are things like ている/でいる split in terms of pronunciation? Do people internalize/think of it as te-iru or tei-ru when speaking? (there is a small difference in what it would sound like between those ...
3
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3answers
422 views

What is the difference between ~ていてください and ~ていってください?

a.ゆっくりしていてください b.ゆっくりしていってください What's the difference between these two sentences? How to translate them?
3
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1answer
123 views

Interpreting きている

My question is how to understand きている when used after verbs like 入る etc. For example: 太陽の光が中に入ってきているのでとても明るい空間になっていて How is the きている to be interpreted here? I guess in my head the question stems ...
2
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1answer
340 views

Meaning of おられる姿

小池百合子都知事の頑張っている姿、私は最大限評価している。ある意味の古い政治と向き合って戦っておられる姿、共鳴もする。 How do you understand おられる姿?
2
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1answer
193 views

送ってくれた : Why is both “sending” and “giving” being used together here?

I encountered the sentence: 両親が私にはがきを送ってくれた。 I understand that: 送って translates to a verb meaning "to send", or I assume in this case "sending" due to the "te-form" being used. I also understand ...
2
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1answer
174 views

Can 呉れ mean “I give to you” as well as “you give to me”?

Excerpt from よだかの星. Before the Nighthawk leaves, he stops to speak to the kingfisher and says: 「はちすずめへ、あとでよろしく云ってやって呉れ。」 I'm having trouble resolving the 呉れ with へ in this sentence.It seems like ...
-1
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1answer
171 views

もらわれていくの grammar

I have problem understanding grammar in this sentence: アニー、もらわれていくのがいやになったの。。。 Could you help to translate it and give links to grammar?