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Questions tagged [subsidiary-verbs]

補助動詞. Verbs such as いる, おく, ある, いく, くる, and しまう, which can follow the 〜て form of a verb with special grammaticalized meanings. Not to be confused with 助動詞(じょどうし) "auxiliary verbs", which are inflecting function words or endings such as 〜ない and 〜ます. We use the translation "subsidiary verbs" on this site to avoid confusion.

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What does Causative + たる mean? [duplicate]

The character girlfriend criticizes him and he says this: 俺が善がるだけしかできねぇってか!? My reading is akin to "Are you say I only satisfy myself!?" Then he later adds 死ぬほど善がらせたるわ! From context I ...
2 votes
1 answer
96 views

Development of existential verbs ゐる / いる (居る), をる / おる (居る)

How did the verbs 居{ゐ}る / 居{い}る, 居{を}る / 居{お}る develop their function as existential verbs?
2 votes
2 answers
144 views

Use of ており JLPT N3: 「このような都市はコンパクトシティと言われており、...」

I am studying a reading book for JLPT3 and I came across a grammar I can't seem to find: このような都市はコンパクトシティと言われており、お年寄りも気軽にいろいろな場所へ行くことができる。 Can someone explain the use of the verb おる here?
3 votes
1 answer
572 views

What does おり mean in this sentence?

Is it from the verb 居る? If it's so, why is not it ております? 怪人による被害はこれまでにない規模の拡大を続けており、…
1 vote
1 answer
121 views

What does the きた in this sentence mean?

今度は何を覚えてきた? Mother said to her daughter that just got back home I wanna interpret it as "what did you learn? (and got back here home)?" but i don't know if that's correct.
3 votes
2 answers
352 views

ていく (auxiliary verb) - Clarification on nuance

I was revising the grammar for ていく and got this sentence from the Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar. これからは寒くなっていく The meaning the book gave was that "It will get colder (and continue to be ...
21 votes
1 answer
6k views

What is a subsidiary verb?

What is a subsidiary verb? Could someone please explain it and give some examples of its application?
4 votes
1 answer
548 views

What does the word 「やったる」 mean?

Here is the sentence including the word. It is said by an old man who is cooking some food and planning to give it to a younger person who is in jail. ようし わしゃあやったるぜ I am not sure if it is a shorten ...
1 vote
1 answer
172 views

苦しんでいる vs 苦しめられる

次の文章を読んで、どう違いますか分かりません。 ① 胃潰瘍に苦しんでいる。I suffer from stomach ulcer. ② 胃潰瘍に苦しめられる。I suffer from stomach ulcer. 両方は「胃潰瘍のせいで、僕は苦しんだ、今も苦しい」。 ②は受身形で、「僕は苦しめられる、誰に?、胃潰瘍に」っていう意味でしょ? それは Suffering Passive ですね。 ...
3 votes
2 answers
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くれ in いっしょにきてくれますか?

What is the exact meaning of くれ here: Will you come with me? いっしょ に きて くれます か? / Issho ni kite kure masu ka? Why would it not be this instead: いっしょ に きて します か? / Issho ni kite shimasu ka? Or do ...
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1 answer
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If 連用形 can replace て-form in this sentence?

I wonder if the て in 僕を飼いならしてたいみたいだ can be removed? Because I think ならし is the 連用形 of ならす, so it can also used to link two verbs.
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1 answer
617 views

What verb form is してきた?

What is してきた? 文化という言葉は、芸術や学問など人間が生み出した高い達成度を持つもの(ハイカルチャー)を指すとともに、人間の社会が長年にわたって形成してきた慣習や振舞いの体系を指す (source) I suppose it's a conjugated form of する, but I can't find it. I don't know if it has anything ...
0 votes
1 answer
102 views

Trying to figure out the Japanese tale's sentence

ある年のこと、大雨が切れめなく、ザアザアふったので、村は水びたしになってしまい、村人は、 とてもこまりました。 I don't understand the second part "村は水びたしになってしまい". I figured out that this means "The village ended up becoming dipped in water....
2 votes
0 answers
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Meaning of Verb て form + やる? [duplicate]

Context: Boy challenges girl that he can guess the thing she hates. Girl accepts but jokes that he’ll never be able to guess it. They’re good friends. Boy in response to her comment, thinks in his ...
14 votes
1 answer
5k views

What does てやる mean when it is not used for giving?

Okay, according to the (monolingual) dictionary that I use, てやる is used to indicate "doing something with strong will or determination" (my translation) e.g. 飛び降りてやる! But this definition ...
1 vote
1 answer
167 views

What does やってくる mean in this sentence?

宿題をやってこなかったですか? It's something like "Have you ended up not doing the homework?", I think, but what's the difference with just やらなかった? What kind of てくる is this? Is it the same of 寒くなってくる?
2 votes
1 answer
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「している」と「し続ける」の違い

活用のないままだと別物だと思われるのですが、例えば「want to keep doing something」と言いたい時、「していたい」とも「し続けたい」とも言うことができそうです。違いはあるでしょうか。それから先日、「英語で話しましょうか」と申し出してくださった相手に、そちらは英語でも構いませんが「こちらは日本語を使っていさせていただきたいです」という言い方をしてみたら、「...
2 votes
1 answer
141 views

What does ~てくる mean here?

紅緒に歩みよってきた少尉は、かがんで手をさしのべた。 I don't understand what kind of ~てくる it is. Does it mean that he got closer to her more and more? Or does it mean that he got closer to me, here, like the author wants me ...
13 votes
3 answers
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~ておく or ~とく for preparation (conjugation and nuance)

A few quick questions regarding ~ておく and the casual form ~とく Firstly, when changing from ~ておく to the more casual ~とく I'm assuming the verb is first conjugated to the ~て form then the ~て is dropped and ...
80 votes
3 answers
38k views

Difference between -ていく and -てくる

Can someone explain the differences between v-ていく and v-てくる for me. I know that they both express some kind of ongoing action (like a place getting crowded). For example, what's the difference between ...
2 votes
1 answer
156 views

Understanding 殴られてやる

口の中を切った血を吐き捨てて立ち上がる。思いの外にダメージの少ない、淀みのない動き。 「経験上、実際に聞くまで誰も納得しないから言わないだけだ。時間を無駄にしたくない」 「あァ? おまえ何言って、」 「そのうち話す。……それと、」  言うなりシンはライデンの顔面をぶん殴った。  小柄な体軀で至極コンパクトな振りで、おそろしく効いた。体重の移動と力の伝達が無駄一つなく適切だからで、...
10 votes
1 answer
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What does ~たまえ mean exactly and how do you use it?

I've seen the verb 給え【たまえ】, usually written in hiragana and after the stem of another verb, ending a phrase. I'm not too sure about its meaning. I've read that it means "...please" but is ...
6 votes
1 answer
641 views

Why is くれる used here and not あげる

The lines are taken from a visual novel and the translation as well Example 1 逃れるつもり ? 逃れる? 違うな世界の終焉までに時間をくれてやろうというのだ What are you running away? Run? No. I'm simply giving you time to enjoy until the ...
3 votes
2 answers
588 views

What does ワインを買っていくよ mean?

I am very confused about the meaning of the expressions 'ていく' and 'てくる' and seems that every website I look has a different explanation. Translations that I think are good: 'Go in order to buy wine'; '...
9 votes
2 answers
989 views

ておく → とく in other contexts; similar 2-kana to 1-kana shortcuts?

Recently I learned that おいておいて ("leave it there") can be shortened in casual speech (or speech to subordinates) to おいといて. (ておく → とく). I also learned that this can be used for any verb ...
5 votes
2 answers
760 views

Is おくれ interchangeable with くれ?

Suppose a boss is telling his/her subordinates not to be angry by saying 怒らないでおくれよ。 What is the meaning of おくれ in this context? And is it interchangeable with the sentence "怒らないでくれよ。" ?
5 votes
1 answer
371 views

Could there be an 'invisible' "should" in this sentence? 携帯番号交換しとくんだったな

携帯番号交換しとくんだったな。。。 The sentence means "We have interchanged phone numbers in advance." This makes no sense with the story unless I add "should" before the "have". So ...
3 votes
1 answer
250 views

なさい and ください using い-stem instead of う-stem

I'm curious as to why these two verbs use their い-stem, instead of う like ます does after the い-stem and くれる/あげる/おく do after the て form. (I know the two are aru special class verbs.) Does this have to ...
0 votes
1 answer
141 views

What does "ふってきて mean in the sentence "これが、突然空からふってきて..."? [duplicate]

I know the sentence means something like "This suddenly came out of the sky...". "これが" means "this is" (side question: why add "が" instead of just keeping it as ...
1 vote
2 answers
199 views

「外国人登録をする時もいっしょについて」 Why ついて?

I am confused by this sentence in my textbook and I hope somebody will help me. (talking about the host family, specifically the mother/wife) 外国人登録をする時もいっしょについて来てくれました I think this is saying the ...
6 votes
2 answers
432 views

新しい発明をした場合、特許を取っておかないと、すぐにその アイデア を使われてしまう

新しい発明をした場合、特許を取っておかないと、すぐにその アイデア を使われてしまう。 The problem stems from the fact that I can't handle some elements in this sentence and therefore also have issues determining the exact meaning of the ...
1 vote
1 answer
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When do you use forms of 歩く as a verb to talk about walking?

I've come across different usages of 歩く as a verb and was unsure in which scenarios they would be most appropriate to use. Is 歩く used with 来る? 東京タワーまで歩いて来ます。 Or is it used with 行く? 東京タワーまで歩いて行きます。 ...
4 votes
1 answer
315 views

What's the purpose of adding って here?

Wouldn't 連れてくれよ be exactly the same?
1 vote
2 answers
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What is the たれ in 「もう一本止めたれ」?

In the sentence: "もう一本止めたれ" (spoken) Is the たれ just the "command form" of the たり grammar?
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2 answers
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Understanding てくる in these sentences

Coming across lines such as (two separate contexts): 「ご飯をよそってきて食べなよ」 and 「そんなに驚かないで。頭を冷やすために下でお茶でも淹れてくるよ」 I'm having trouble understanding the usage of 来る in both of these sentences. I was ...
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

When to use 出て来る over 出る

Here is a sentence from the children's story ももたろう, describing when the child appears from within the giant peach. 桃の中から赤ちゃんが出てきました。 My dictionary lists 出て来る as meaning "to come out" with ...
3 votes
1 answer
159 views

Can't understand 虫に変ってしまっているのに気づいた

I am trying to read 変身 The Metamorphosis by Kafka. I have troubles understanding the following : 虫に変ってしまっているのに気づいた translated by he discovered that he had been changed into a bug First i'm not ...
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0 answers
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What is the function of おけ in this sentence? 記しておけ [duplicate]

記しておけ what is the role of おけ in this sentence. Another sentence 放っておけ
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0 answers
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What exactly does ておく mean in 食べておく? [duplicate]

The context for this question is from a conversation text. (みんなの日本語中級I第4課)The speaker is leaving a voice message: ……今日ね、急な仕事が入っちゃって、遅くなりそうなの。晩ご飯、先に食べといて。じゃね。 といて here is just short for ておいて, but ...
0 votes
2 answers
1k views

Verb てform + くる what does it mean?

I'd like to know what is the meaning of the previous pattern I mentioned in the following sentence: 職場ではそんな話ばかりきこえてくるぞ! I guess きこえて is the てform of 聞こえる. But what is the meaning of きこえて + くる ...
1 vote
2 answers
533 views

Use of the "きた” form before するnoun

During my research, I came upon two forms to express the fact of moving to a new house: ここは 三月前に引っ越ししてきたアパートです。 ここは 三月前に引っ越ししたアパートです。 I don't understand the difference between the two, does the one ...
1 vote
1 answer
862 views

Is くれてください tautological?

I was doing some reading on the different honorific forms in Japanese and came across ください being the humble form of くれる. Does this mean that -くれてください at the end of a request is tautological?
3 votes
2 answers
246 views

What's the structure of this lyric sentence? 「置いてかなくちゃいけないのかな」

The sentence is: [明日]{あした}の[入]{い}り[口]{ぐち}に、[置]{お}いてかなくちゃいけないのかな? Now I know the former part is "tomorrow, at the entrance (of our school)", and the following phrases: おく ーー 置いて, to put, かな ーー is ...
1 vote
1 answer
109 views

Differences in usage between 付ける and 付けて行く

What are the differences between the two usages? From what I've surmised, the meaning is more or less the same. Typically, I tend to associate this usage of 行く to "moving away" from the ...
2 votes
1 answer
360 views

Is こられた (from 来られた from 来られる) here working as a passive helping?

I came across two paragraphs in which こられた is mentioned. 1st paragraph: 萩生田文部科学大臣は、NHKの取材に対し、「報道が事実だとすれば、これまで体調が悪い中でも業務を続けてこられたのに、ここにきて辞任されるのは非常に残念だ。まだお若いので、今後は体調に気をつけていただきながら後輩への指導をしっかりしてもらいたい」...
3 votes
1 answer
200 views

Interpreting きている

My question is how to understand きている when used after verbs like 入る etc. For example: 太陽の光が中に入ってきているのでとても明るい空間になっていて How is the きている to be interpreted here? I guess in my head the question stems ...
7 votes
1 answer
710 views

Meaning of 崩れかける

I'm having some difficulties understanding the construction 崩れかけた in 博士たちは崩れかけた門をくぐり、中へ入っていった。 I couldn't find it as a single word, so I take it is constructed from 崩れる and かける. My guess is that it'...
2 votes
1 answer
144 views

Why is であった used in this sentance?

I'm just starting to tackle non-textbook Japanese, so apologies if my question is silly. The sentence below gave me some headache even though I more or less know what it's supposed to say (this is ...
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

すぎ to mean too much but in a good way

From what I understand, すぎ means too much, till the point it is bad. For example 食べすぎ would mean "eating way too much (and it's not good)". So how would one say "eating too much (and it's good)"? Can ...
1 vote
1 answer
364 views

The meaning of 示してみせろ

その点に不服があるのなら、学校側が納得するようにこの1年間で示してみせろ。 示す: 1. to (take out and) show; to demonstrate; to tell; to exemplify; to make apparent​, 2. to point out (finger, clock hand, needle, etc.)​, 3. to indicate; to ...