Questions tagged [renyōkei]

連用形. An inflection of verbs and adjectives known by various names in English, including "continuative form", "infinitive", "the stem", "conjunctive form", and even "Vmasu form" (since it's the form that appears before 〜ます, although of course this name doesn't work for adjectives). Sometimes called 中立形 in Japanese. Formed with -i for consonant-stem verbs, -∅ for vowel-stem verbs, and -ku for adjectives.

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読み取られ without る [duplicate]

示に従い、カメラで学生証を写すと顔写真や学籍番号などが読み取られログインが進む。 The school released a new application, and the teacher instructed the students to install it on their cell phones. The activation process is by reading (...
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やり い-form conjunction vs て-form conjunction

From Assimil's "Japanese With Ease" volume 2, lesson 72, sentence 10. その上【うえ】一人【ひとり】で起【お】き上【あ】がれないから,そのたんびに起【お】こしてやり,半【はん】日【にち】かかって,やっとひとつの山【やま】から降【お】りられた。 その上【うえ】一人【ひとり】で起【お】き上【あ】がれないから, ...
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Do all the い-adjectives become adverbs when you add く to them?

Do all い-adjectives become adverbs when you add く to them? For example: 新しい = 新しく 早い  = 早く But does this work with all the い-adjectives?
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Why is kiru represented as kiri in おじいさん が 山 へ 木 を きり に いけば

I can't fathom why the verb kiru is in the masu form without the masu attached in this sentence: おじいさん が 山{やま} へ 木{き} を きり に いけば What is the purpose?
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Logic behind grammar patterns

One of my current biggest challenges in learning Japanese sentence patterns is knowing which verb forms to use when linking to set phrases. The largest classes of verb forms I've seen that are used ...
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Nominalizing verb with い-ending vs ーの

In my Japanese class today, we were supposed to say a sport we liked. I said: 泳ぎが好きです。 We haven't learned this way of nominalizing verbs or the names of many sports, so my 先生 shook her head no and ...
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五段動詞特異的なイ音便について

Are there any explanations for the 五段動詞-specific イ音便 of 連用形+た/て that aren't based/dependent on the 子音語幹/母音語幹 explanation for the differences in 五段動詞/上一段動詞 conjugations? For example, take 開く and 飽きる, ...
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Removal of て in Japanese novels

Is て sometimes dropped in Japanese Novella? I'm asking as I recall being told (in one of my previous question's comment section) that て is sometimes dropped in Japanese novels. And yet, when I went ...
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Renyoukei at the end of a sentence

https://www.spookizthemovie.jp/ I'm curious about the renyoukei at the end of the last sentence of the description: ある日、偶然拾ったスマホがきっかけで、キュラが、好奇心旺盛な人間の少女・ハナに出会ってしまい・・・。 What does it do at the end ...
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How do you formulate the 連用中止 with 形容動詞 (な adjectives) and 名詞 (nouns)?

According to my textbook, verb and i-adjective sentences can be chained with the 連用中止【れんようちゅうし】 form like this: Later on, I came across this exercise where I'm required to replace the adjectives' ...
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What does にとり mean?

Could somebody please help me to understand what にとり means in the following sentence (taken from a letter explaining the change to Reiwa era) : 「私達日本人{わたしたちにほんじん}にとり身近{みぢか}で重大{じゅうだい}な最新{さいしん}の話題{...
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meaning of なく followed by なし

In the context of a very well fortified place, what does 入る者なく出る者なし mean? It seems like it would mean: none may enter, none may leave, but I'd like to make sure, and understand the naku form better. ...
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Grammaticality of two kanji verbs without their conjugating part

A friend told me he's going to get a tattoo with "頑張". 頑張 doesn't exist on the dictionary without its -る conjugating part, so is it grammatically correct using it alone, as if it was a noun? Does it ...
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「あまもり」と一段動詞「もれる」

天井などに欠陥があって,あめがふったときなどに,みずがもれだしてくることは「あまもり」といいます.しかし,この語の後半「もり」と関係があるとおもわれる動詞「もれる」は一段活用です.その連用形を名詞としてもちいているのだとすれば「もれ」でなくてはなりません.このことから,かつては,「もれる」とおなじ意味の「もる」という五段動詞があったのではないかとおもいたくなります....
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What is the role of し after the noun?

I can't understand the role of し after 留学 in the sentence: 来年、日本に留学しに行くと決めた。 I heard that it is supposed to be a conjugated form of する, but I don't know a conjugation ending in just し. Any ideas?
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Meaning of ようになり

The problematic part is emboldened. 縄文時代は、縄文土器が使用された時代を示す呼称であったが、次第に生活内容を加えた特徴の説明が為されるようになり、磨製石器を造る技術、土器の使用、農耕狩猟採集経済、定住化した社会ととらえられるようになった。 I can't understand how does the ようになり function here. ...
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What does すまなく思うが mean?

すまなく is 'sorry' but how does 思うが change this meaning? 'I feel sorry?'
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What form is 超え in 人の理を超え…?

my question is , what does 超え in 人の理を超えその身を保ち生き永らえながら…その全てを搾取支配人を弄ぶことに費やして…何を為そうとした' mean ? Is it a form of 越える? If yes, what form is it (you know, like ~て、~た、~しょう... etc)? I haven't stumbled across ...
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Verb Stem vs. の Nominalizations

I've been wondering about the difference between verb stem (e.g. 話) vs. の (e.g. 話すの) nominalizations. From what i gather, both nominalizations refer to different things. It seems the verb stems refer ...
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Question about “nari”

七三年にはテレビ番組になり、今も毎週続いています。 I understand the sentence to be: In '73 it became a television show, and today it continues every week. My question is about the form of the verb なる in the above ...
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What do verbs missing their -る mean? [duplicate]

When I read a light novel, sometimes I see some weird verb that does not have る like it's supposed to. For example, I see 越え instead of 越える, or 抱え instead of 抱える. From the first page of 生徒会探偵キリカ: ...
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Meaning of で Before a Conjunction [duplicate]

めったに~ない ~するのはほとんどない。 〔例〕店長【てんちょう】は優しい【やさしい】人【ひと】で、めったに怒らない【おこらない】。 'The store manager is a nice person and rarely gets angry.' What does で mean in this sentence?
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I don't understand what this verb conjugation is: 見えなくなった

This is a quote from Tae Kim's Guide 下に入って、富士山が見えなくなった Can someone explain what this form of 見える is? It almost seems like they are trying to make a negative verb into an adverb but is that ...
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In which word form does 探し belong to? [duplicate]

I confuse with usage of 探し in this sentence: 探しに行くんだ そこへ I have tried to google it. But they show me 探す which is a u-verb. And I am unable to find sagashi. The closest one is sagashita which is ...
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Grammar justification for 連用形 + 係助詞「は」+(ない・ある)

So recently I came across these two answers to two very interesting questions, and related: one and two. Both mention the following form: (連用形{れんようけい} of something) + (optional 係助詞{かかりじょし}) + (...
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How is ではなく formed?

この女の人はペンチではなく、ハンマーを使っています。 I believe the sentence means "The woman is using a hammer, not a pliers". But I couldn't understand ではなく, how is this structure formed?
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Why do they use the 連用形 instead of the て form here? [duplicate]

I know that the て form can be used to connect verbs together, like the English "and": 毎日私は食べて寝る。 I eat and sleep every day. And I know the 連用形 can be used to connect verbs as well, but it ...
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Why does 逃げよ mean 'Escape!"?

I have been watching some anime recently and I often hear people say にげよ (逃げよ in kanji maybe?) and it is usually translated as "(Let's) escape!". I want to know why it is translated this way. ...
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What does this mean? - help with 続き and なら

日本語で[続]{つづ}きをよむならてつだいますよ! [続]{つづ}きをよんでほしいです I'm confused about tsuzuki and nara. Going by it's definition of continuation... it doesn't really make much sense to me plus the conditional... I get ...
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Masu stem to connect sentences

When using masu-stem to connect sentences, is the short form for shimashita = shi? 昨日無事に大学を卒業しました。日曜日に国へ帰ります。 = 昨日無事に大学を卒業し、日曜日に国へ帰ります。 Is his correct?
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Why is this sentence not separated? 圧着部分を図1,2のように交互に折り込みドリッパーの内側にピッタリと装着します。

It is a step how to use coffee filter. 圧着部分を図1,2のように交互に折り込みドリッパーの内側にピッタリと装着します。 In my opinion, it should be 圧着部分を図1,2のように交互に折り込み - Fold the filter alternately following to the diagram 1 and 2 to ...
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Can たり be used without する at the end?

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/compound#part8 explains what たりする is. I read "地面が40cm以上高くなったり、1m20cm以上低くなった所もありました" on http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/easy/k10010492331000/k10010492331000....
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Is the 「て」 missing from 「され」 in this sentence?

Here is the sentence. ソフトのプレイ中にHOMEボタンを押すと、ソフトが中断されHOMEメニューが表示されます。 I think 「て」 should follow the verb 「中断され」 to create conjunctive/continuative form.
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Difference between ざまに and ながら

お姉ちゃんが振り向きざまにきっぱりと言い切った Big sister turned around and ?? clearly asserted... From the answer on this question about ざまに, I understand ざまに to mean "while". But in what way does it differ from ながら? ...
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Conjunctive form (e.g. 書き) vs Conj + mono (e.g. 書き物)

I'm trying to fully understand the plain conjunctive form without a suffix. I've seen it mainly in the form of 話, where it means a talk or speech. So I think it means something along the lines of "the ...
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Which form is 切り?

On a Japanese package I've found this inscription: ここからお切り下さい。 This obviously means: "Please cut here (to open)". With my very basic knowledge of Japanese I would instead of お切り (お being the ...
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連用形 used instead of regular 連体形 directly modifying nouns

I'm attempting to read my first light novel and am unsure about whether I am misunderstanding the function completely, or if it is merely a literary usage. Here is an example: ...
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How does “koe” mean “went over”?

山 を こえ、 たに を こえ、 うみ に でる と、 おに の ふね が ありました It translates as They went over the mountains, and over the valleys And came out to the sea, and there was a devil boat Why is it "koe" means "went ...
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連用形 of 「だ」 - difference between 「だっ」「で」「に」

Out of the conjugations of だ, the 連用形 is what is confusing me. I understand だ、だろ、な、なら fine, but I'm confused about だっ、で、に. I think my question might be a bit too broad and that's because I really ...
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Use of verb ます-stem when て-form seems possible

I saw this line is a song: 時計塔の頂上椅子に座り微笑んでるあなたは I'm curious why it uses すわり rather than 座って? Since it's a sequence of actions I would've thought 座って would be more applicable, but since 座り ...
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What does the word 「部下となし」 mean?

Here is the sentence including the word. そのドヤ街{がい}に住む{すむ}子{こ}どもたちをそそのかしてかれらを部下{ぶか}となし
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Stem of ます-form as conjuction

おはよう! I came up with the stem of the ます-form while trying to read a book. I already checked the questions Connecting phrases with the stem of masu-form and なく vs. なくて and stem form vs. てform as ...
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Meaning of 誰もいはしない in this sentence

「どうせ誰もいはしないと高をくくっていたところもある。」 This one's throwing me for a bit of a loop. The translation says "He also didn't really take the possibility of anyone being there seriously." It makes sense to me ...
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The meaning of 美味しいクッキーで子供たちに大人気

Woman 1 「アスタの作るクッキーは香りが豊かで、焼き始めるとスタリオンの子供たちが屋敷に集まってくるのよね」 アスタ 「簡単に焼けるから、みんなに配る分もすぐに準備出来るからね」 Woman 2 「うむ、領地の子供たちに美味しい物を振る舞うとは……さすが領主の義理息子だけはある」 Woman 1 「感心しているけど、あんたは実の娘でしょうが」 Man ...
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What does the word 「よりうけ」 mean?

Here is the sentence including the word. 生{せい}活{かつ}費{ひ}そのほかいっさいのせわを丹{たん}下{げ}氏{し}よりうけ
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(美化語)なさい - sound

The difference between (連用形)なさい and (美化語)なさい is rather clear; the first would only be used for social inferiors, and the second can be used for social superiors (it's also part of set expressions ...
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What does the word 「してやせんっ」 mean?

I have come across the word in a manga. It is said by a boy who was talking about the future plan of selling prizes awarded from playing Pachinko. Here is the sentence including the word: いつまでも ...
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連用形+は+せん (殺しはせん。) meaning? [duplicate]

The line 「殺しはせん。」 is said by a character in anime. What is せん here (I assume it's somehow related to negative form of する)? Plain negative (I'm not killing you)? Volitional neg. (I'm not intending to ...
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What does the word 「ありゃしねえ」mean?

It is a situation which a salesperson announces to a group of people to attract them to buy his goods. Here is the full sentence. こんなお買【か】いどくはどこの世【せ】界【かい】へいったって ありゃしねえよ
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Usage and meaning of 仲ばし [closed]

While reading I came across a strange usage which none of my dictionaries could decipher. 腰を仲ばし、両手を大きく振りながら、てくてく歩く。 While googling I found the sentence 手を前方に進め上体を倒しながら仲ばします accompanied by a ...