Questions tagged [renyōkei]

連用形. An inflection of verbs and adjectives known by various names in English, including "continuative form", "infinitive", "the stem", "conjunctive form", and even "Vmasu form" (since it's the form that appears before 〜ます, although of course this name doesn't work for adjectives). Sometimes called 中立形 in Japanese. Formed with -i for consonant-stem verbs, -∅ for vowel-stem verbs, and -ku for adjectives.

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Use of ており JLPT N3: 「このような都市はコンパクトシティと言われており、...」

I am studying a reading book for JLPT3 and I came across a grammar I can't seem to find: このような都市はコンパクトシティと言われており、お年寄りも気軽にいろいろな場所へ行くことができる。 Can someone explain the use of the verb おる here?
DotComma103's user avatar
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Why are both 選び and 祝福した taking the same object even though one is in their masu stem and the other isn't? [duplicate]

I noticed that in this sentence: 主{しゅ}はあなたを選{えら}び、祝福{しゅくふく}した。 選{えら}び (masu stem) and 祝福{しゅくふく}した (noun + suru verb) take the same object. Is there a grammar rule for this? I can't seem to find any ...
Rommel Bagasina's user avatar
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2 answers
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The tense of osagashi

In the sentence "nanika osagashi desu ka?" (Are you looking for something), in which tense is "osagashi"? Why is it not osagashimasu?
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る dropped from passive form? [duplicate]

I'm currently translating some song lyrics for my own understanding (境界線 by Amazarashi) - I had some confusion on the following line: 境界線の向こう側で 忘れ去られ 終わる定め そう知りながら 屈服することを 許さぬあの声は かつての戦友か 己の心か Per ...
carthage's user avatar
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A lone 連用形 in song lyrics

The lyrics to 魅惑劇 by ALI PROJECT contain the following fragment: 叶わぬ願いは過去のもの 愛する痛みは傷を閉じ 魅惑劇 I would take the bolded 閉じ to be either continuative or a nominalization, except in the first case there ...
Kisiel's user avatar
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Trying to figure out the Japanese tale's sentence

ある年のこと、大雨が切れめなく、ザアザアふったので、村は水びたしになってしまい、村人は、 とてもこまりました。 I don't understand the second part "村は水びたしになってしまい". I figured out that this means "The village ended up becoming dipped in water....
Jonie Jackson's user avatar
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What is this ~れ verb form used in the middle of the sentence? Is it ~られて/~れて without the て?

I saw this sentence in a light novel. 浮遊感に穏やかに包まれ、玉響の安息。 What is this verb form 「包まれ」? It looks like it's supposed to be 「包まれて」but with the て dropped. I've seen this form every now and then, but I ...
littlecatte's user avatar
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Why is 大きく違い grammatically correct?

日本は南北に長い国なので、南と北では気候が大きく違い、… (From Tobira Gateway to Advanced Japanese, p.5.) I thought 大きく is an adverb, so it can only qualify a verb; but 違い is a noun. What's going on here?
max's user avatar
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Why is 暗い conjugated as 暗くsometimes?

I know in past tense, you use く like 暗くない but even in present tense, I see example phrases where 暗く is used. For instance: もう暗くなったから、帰りましょう。 I'm a beginner so bear with me please and thanks!
Owen's user avatar
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Use 連用形 as a 形容動詞 (na-adjective)

In the lyric of 余白 by 尾崎由香, there is the line 言わば引きこもりなくせに In this line, the 連用形 of the verb 引きこもる seems to be used as a 形容動詞. While it is quite common to use the 連用形 of a verb as a noun, this is ...
Weijun Zhou's user avatar
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Is 仕方 a particular case of the pattern V連用形 + 方?

There is a pattern to express the way of doing things. First comes a verb in the 連用形 form, and after that comes the word 方{かた}. For example: 食べ + 方 → 食べ方 (the way of eating) 読み + 方 → 読み方 (the way of ...
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やまをこえ、のを こえて、。。。-- how to interpert "こえ"?

I'm a newbie and I'm now trying to parse my first text, the 11ぴきの猫 children book. There is a sentence: 山をこえ、のを こえて、どんどん 行くと、はるかむこうに みずうみが みえました。 I think the overall meaning is clear, but I'm puzzled ...
Pokroops's user avatar
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What is the nuance of using 連用形 with すれば rather than other forms of conditionals?

Recently I came across 優希から直取りすれば逆転トップだぞ!? And I was surprised to see it written like that rather than 優希から直取れば逆転トップだぞ!? Is this a general thing that can be done with any 連用形 form of a verb? If ...
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The use of し in this sentence [duplicate]

I'm using manga to learn some grammar and the following sentence came up. オレは旅をし世界をめぐっていると… I can't figure out why し is being used. I know it can be used for listing and such, but being next to を ...
Chrollo's user avatar
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Use of 揺らせ as 連用形

I've come across the following clause in ノルウェイの森. 十月の風はすすきの穂をあちこちで揺らせ, ... 揺らせ here clearly seems to be functioning as a 連用形, but I'm not quite sure how this can be derived from 揺らす as it's not 揺らして. ...
Dragonsheep's user avatar
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Can you use the し particle without dictionary forms? [duplicate]

日本は集団主義、序列社会である。ものを大事にし、他者への配慮、思いやりを理解すべし I'm struggling to work out the precise function of the し in ものを大事にし here. Well - I'm quite sure it is the し particle for linking clauses, but the lack of a ...
James Collins's user avatar
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What is the difference between 連用形 'て-form' and the い-stem?

If they are the same syntactically, why is it right to say 食べている but not 食べいる? Why is it right to say 食べ続ける, but not 食べて続ける? Forgive my ignorance on this topic.
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読み取られ without る [duplicate]

示に従い、カメラで学生証を写すと顔写真や学籍番号などが読み取られログインが進む。 The school released a new application, and the teacher instructed the students to install it on their cell phones. The activation process is by reading (...
Amanda Zhang's user avatar
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1 answer
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やり い-form conjunction vs て-form conjunction

From Assimil's "Japanese With Ease" volume 2, lesson 72, sentence 10. その上【うえ】一人【ひとり】で起【お】き上【あ】がれないから,そのたんびに起【お】こしてやり,半【はん】日【にち】かかって,やっとひとつの山【やま】から降【お】りられた。 その上【うえ】一人【ひとり】で起【お】き上【あ】がれないから, ...
Near E. Fox's user avatar
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Do all the い-adjectives become adverbs when you add く to them?

Do all い-adjectives become adverbs when you add く to them? For example: 新しい = 新しく 早い  = 早く But does this work with all the い-adjectives?
Richard Al's user avatar
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Why is kiru represented as kiri in おじいさん が 山 へ 木 を きり に いけば

I can't fathom why the verb kiru is in the masu form without the masu attached in this sentence: おじいさん が 山{やま} へ 木{き} を きり に いけば What is the purpose?
coinmaster's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
285 views

Logic behind grammar patterns

One of my current biggest challenges in learning Japanese sentence patterns is knowing which verb forms to use when linking to set phrases. The largest classes of verb forms I've seen that are used ...
Trevor Kafka's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
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Nominalizing verb with い-ending vs ーの

In my Japanese class today, we were supposed to say a sport we liked. I said: 泳ぎが好きです。 We haven't learned this way of nominalizing verbs or the names of many sports, so my 先生 shook her head no and I ...
ringo's user avatar
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2 answers
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五段動詞特異的なイ音便について

Are there any explanations for the 五段動詞-specific イ音便 of 連用形+た/て that aren't based/dependent on the 子音語幹/母音語幹 explanation for the differences in 五段動詞/上一段動詞 conjugations? For example, take 開く and 飽きる, ...
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Removal of て in Japanese novels

Is て sometimes dropped in Japanese Novella? I'm asking as I recall being told (in one of my previous question's comment section) that て is sometimes dropped in Japanese novels. And yet, when I went ...
Toyu_Frey's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Renyoukei at the end of a sentence

https://www.spookizthemovie.jp/ I'm curious about the renyoukei at the end of the last sentence of the description: ある日、偶然拾ったスマホがきっかけで、キュラが、好奇心旺盛な人間の少女・ハナに出会ってしまい・・・。 What does it do at the end ...
Andrea's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do you formulate the 連用中止 with 形容動詞 (な adjectives) and 名詞 (nouns)?

According to my textbook, verb and i-adjective sentences can be chained with the 連用中止【れんようちゅうし】 form like this: Later on, I came across this exercise where I'm required to replace the adjectives' ...
jarmanso7's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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What does にとり mean?

Could somebody please help me to understand what にとり means in the following sentence (taken from a letter explaining the change to Reiwa era) : 「私達日本人{わたしたちにほんじん}にとり身近{みぢか}で重大{じゅうだい}な最新{さいしん}の話題{...
pfc47's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
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Etymology of 見舞い

Visiting someone in hospital clearly involves seeing that person. But dancing? Does 舞 have some other, relevant meaning? Did it pertain to a traditional, sacred dance for health? Or is this ateji?
Mathieu Bouville's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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meaning of なく followed by なし

In the context of a very well fortified place, what does 入る者なく出る者なし mean? It seems like it would mean: none may enter, none may leave, but I'd like to make sure, and understand the naku form better. ...
David Song's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
155 views

Grammaticality of two kanji verbs without their conjugating part

A friend told me he's going to get a tattoo with "頑張". 頑張 doesn't exist on the dictionary without its -る conjugating part, so is it grammatically correct using it alone, as if it was a noun? Does it ...
Marco's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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「あまもり」と一段動詞「もれる」

天井などに欠陥があって,あめがふったときなどに,みずがもれだしてくることは「あまもり」といいます.しかし,この語の後半「もり」と関係があるとおもわれる動詞「もれる」は一段活用です.その連用形を名詞としてもちいているのだとすれば「もれ」でなくてはなりません.このことから,かつては,「もれる」とおなじ意味の「もる」という五段動詞があったのではないかとおもいたくなります....
Pteromys's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the role of し after the noun?

I can't understand the role of し after 留学 in the sentence: 来年、日本に留学しに行くと決めた。 I heard that it is supposed to be a conjugated form of する, but I don't know a conjugation ending in just し. Any ideas?
El Gringo's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
218 views

Meaning of ようになり

The problematic part is emboldened. 縄文時代は、縄文土器が使用された時代を示す呼称であったが、次第に生活内容を加えた特徴の説明が為されるようになり、磨製石器を造る技術、土器の使用、農耕狩猟採集経済、定住化した社会ととらえられるようになった。 I can't understand how does the ようになり function here. ...
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-2 votes
2 answers
184 views

What does すまなく思うが mean?

すまなく is 'sorry' but how does 思うが change this meaning? 'I feel sorry?'
Nettan's user avatar
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1 answer
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What form is 超え in 人の理を超え…?

my question is , what does 超え in 人の理を超えその身を保ち生き永らえながら…その全てを搾取支配人を弄ぶことに費やして…何を為そうとした' mean ? Is it a form of 越える? If yes, what form is it (you know, like ~て、~た、~しょう... etc)? I haven't stumbled across ...
Polina Korneeva's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
679 views

Verb Stem vs. の Nominalizations

I've been wondering about the difference between verb stem (e.g. 話) vs. の (e.g. 話すの) nominalizations. From what I gather, they refer to different things. It seems the verb stems refer to the objects ...
mouldyfart's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
136 views

Question about "nari"

七三年にはテレビ番組になり、今も毎週続いています。 I understand the sentence to be: In '73 it became a television show, and today it continues every week. My question is about the form of the verb なる in the above ...
prav's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
355 views

What do verbs missing their -る mean? [duplicate]

When I read a light novel, sometimes I see some weird verb that does not have る like it's supposed to. For example, I see 越え instead of 越える, or 抱え instead of 抱える. From the first page of 生徒会探偵キリカ: ...
Panee Garin's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
233 views

Meaning of で Before a Conjunction [duplicate]

めったに~ない ~するのはほとんどない。 〔例〕店長【てんちょう】は優しい【やさしい】人【ひと】で、めったに怒らない【おこらない】。 'The store manager is a nice person and rarely gets angry.' What does で mean in this sentence?
完全ハチ's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
378 views

I don't understand what this verb conjugation is: 見えなくなった

This is a quote from Tae Kim's Guide 下に入って、富士山が見えなくなった Can someone explain what this form of 見える is? It almost seems like they are trying to make a negative verb into an adverb but is that ...
Sleepy's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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In which word form does 探し belong to? [duplicate]

I confuse with usage of 探し in this sentence: 探しに行くんだ そこへ I have tried to google it. But they show me 探す which is a u-verb. And I am unable to find sagashi. The closest one is sagashita which is ...
Husain's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
223 views

Grammar justification for 連用形 + 係助詞「は」+(ない・ある)

So recently I came across these two answers to two very interesting questions, and related: one and two. Both mention the following form: (連用形{れんようけい} of something) + (optional 係助詞{かかりじょし}) + (...
xTCx's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
467 views

What does おり mean in this sentence?

Is it from the verb 居る? If it's so, why is not it ております? 怪人による被害はこれまでにない規模の拡大を続けており、…
Dav7n's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How is ではなく formed?

この女の人はペンチではなく、ハンマーを使っています。 I believe the sentence means The woman is using a hammer, not a pliers. But I couldn't understand ではなく, how is this structure formed?
Dav7n's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
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Why do they use the 連用形 instead of the て form here? [duplicate]

I know that the て form can be used to connect verbs together, like the English "and": 毎日私は食べて寝る。 I eat and sleep every day. And I know the 連用形 can be used to connect verbs as well, but it ...
Sweeper's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
591 views

Why does 逃げよ mean 'Escape!"?

I have been watching some anime recently and I often hear people say にげよ (逃げよ in kanji maybe?) and it is usually translated as "(Let's) escape!". I want to know why it is translated this way. ...
Sweeper's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
264 views

What does this mean? - help with 続き and なら

日本語で[続]{つづ}きをよむならてつだいますよ! [続]{つづ}きをよんでほしいです I'm confused about tsuzuki and nara. Going by it's definition of continuation... it doesn't really make much sense to me plus the conditional... I get ...
Debbie's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
3k views

Masu stem to connect sentences

When using masu-stem to connect sentences, is the short form for shimashita = shi? 昨日無事に大学を卒業しました。日曜日に国へ帰ります。 = 昨日無事に大学を卒業し、日曜日に国へ帰ります。 Is his correct?
Denise's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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What do the phrases 「ことに」 at the end of a sentence and 「を巡り」 mean?

Here is the sentence relating to my question: 院生たちに慰問に現れた葉子を巡り、再び力石とジョーは拳を交えることに。 For the word 「を巡り」, does it mean 'concerning' which is similar to the meaning of 「を巡って」? For the word 「ことに」, is it ...
George's user avatar
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