Questions tagged [grammar]

文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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Disambiguating 繰り返して: て form vs standalone word

In the dictionary, 繰り返して is shown to have a special meaning "repeatedly". Of course, the regular て form is the same. Which of the two is meant in constructs such as われわれは数知れない失敗を繰り返してきた ...
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What is the purpose of どうすれば and why does こと appear two times?

どうすれば電話で必要なことをきちんと伝えることができるか、。。。 In particular, I don't understand what is the purpose of どうすれば and why こと appears two times. My obviously bad understanding is: What important things you can ...
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Use of 類 as a suffix

Specifically, I was trying to understand the difference between 酸 and 酸類. I'm guessing that adding 類 changes it from a specific acid to the class of all acids, but I really have no idea. More ...
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What is the usage of なら in this sentence: 予定を確認すると、次の週末なら二人とも空いていたので、急いで温泉旅館を予約しました

予定を確認すると、次の週末なら二人とも空いていたので、急いで温泉旅館を予約しました。 I stumbled on this sentence, because I don't know how to translate "nara". Usually, "nara" means "if", but in this sentence, ...
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になる to express "coming" [duplicate]

During a Japanese lesson, we saw quickly that example: Q: 今晩の晩ご飯は何人になりますか。 R: 私を入れて5人です。 Can someone explain to me the meaning of "になります" in this example? Is it a specific use (against the ...
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彼は、自分の信ずるところはあくまでも信じ、使命感を増幅させることを自分につねに求めていた。

彼は、自分の信ずるところはあくまでも信じ、使命感を増幅させることを自分につねに求めていた。 Question: What is the function/meaning of ことを here?
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Understanding としたうえで

民事訴訟法の改正案では、現在は書面に限られている裁判所への訴状や準備書面の提出について、オンラインでの手続きを可能にするとしたうえで、弁護士などの代理人には、オンラインでの提出を義務づけるとしています。 How should I understand the bold としたうえで? Does it mean the same as としたら? And にする already means &...
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How do I parse the phrase 手も汚さず正しくあろうとするなんて?

I'm having trouble understanding the vocabulary and grammar of this phrase. It's from Attack on Titan S4E26 (minute 10:50 on Hulu, E85 minute 10:30 on Crunchyroll) though it's probably not a spoiler. ...
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Is「酷い捨てられ方をされた」grammatical?

I recently encountered this expression「酷い捨てられ方をされた」from sentences below 色々調べたら貴方に酷い捨てられ方されたって人がわんさか証言をくれました。(Kaguya-sama 257) 酷い捨てられ方をされたけど (source) Judging from context, I believe it means "...
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Omitted verbs? 想いを音に音は思いをわずかでもいい届いてくれよ!

想いを音に 音は思いを わずかでもいい 届いてくれよ! What I'm confused about is the omitted verbs. I saw a translation from a translator (from Wiki) going something like: "Turn your thoughts into sound, and your sound ...
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Differences between 知った and 知っていた

There's this song from LiSA that I've been trying to understand the lyrics. However, there is something that is bothering me right at the start. The first verse of the song reads as 強くなれる理由を知った and ...
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Understanding「たとえ思うだけでも思わないでください」

A lady faces a monster and she have an ability to harm that monster just by thinking cruel things in her head, like mentally visualizing stabbing that monster with knife for example. The monster wails ...
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How do you express "have to" in order to talk about a non-obligatory, but obvious course of action?

In English, "has to" and "have to" serve to express obligations (as in "must", like in the classic example of having to do homework), and also work for when one wants to ...
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Use of「など」and ~にまで

I've been watching some kind a medieval fantasy anime and I stumbled upon the following sentence : Context : A character explain how his clan rose to power. ついには、年貢{ねんぐ}取{と}り立{た}てに検査{けんさ}制度{せいど}を導入{...
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The purpose of には in the sentence 'こんないっぱい黒歴史持ってるには若すぎる'

https://twitter.com/sally_amaki/status/1505553739096408066 In this tweet, the English sentence I’m way too young to have this much past to cringe about. got translated to こんないっぱい黒歴史持ってるには若すぎる。 If ...
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The effect of adjectives on adjectival verbs

Recently I was reading「鶴の笛」by (林芙美子) and came across this sentence: 足の悪い鶴は、みんなのいなくなったさびしい沼地のふちの葦のしげったところに立ってみんなが飛びたって行った空をみていました。 The English translation of this sentence by J. D. Wisgo says: The ...
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Is "...つもりだったでしょうか" an OK translation for "Did you mean to ...?"

A person planning a seminar wrote the date and day of the week, but the day of the week was incorrect. So I wanted to send a message asking "Did you mean to write ...?", but I'm struggling ...
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using じゃない in の言葉じゃないけど for affirmation?

Recently, I came across an interesting case of じゃない usage, which I haven't seen prior. さっきの連中の言葉じゃないけど、卒業したくねーわー、オレ。 In the example above, the sentence itself makes sense only in case of じゃない having ...
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What does this double entendre じゃなかったらいいのかよ mean?

「テレビ番組を勝手にアップロードするのは違法だからな」 「10年以下の懲役か1000万円以下の罰金か、その両方だ」 Teacher talking to 3 students: It's illegal to upload TV programs without permission. You can get up to 10 years of hard labor... ...10 ...
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だとよ at the beginning of a sentence

I watched a show in which person A tells person B they want them to come back. After it's said, person C said " datoyo." I don't understand it. Da to yo is used to quote things but why would ...
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そこが+ a person + らしくはあるか meaning in this context

When reading ,I met with this strange expression (at my level at least). Much thanks if anyone can explain to me it's correct meaning. Context: MC is talking with a general (A-san) ,about the plan of ...
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How does adding にする to よう change its meaning?

I know that ようにする means to be sure to do something, but how does it get this meaning from adding にする to よう (which means appear to be/similar to)? In other words, how does: よう + にする = to be sure to do ...
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I don't understand どうして

どうして is translated as why? but... it has して which, is the continuous form. I'm guessing it's continuous to allow the other person to continue the sentence. But, then it has どう.. which I translate to ...
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What nuance does かかる adds to て-form of a verb?

I sometimes come across verbs ending with「てかかる」, for example 食ってかかる and 舐めてかかる. It sometimes show up in novels I'm reading, for example 若い私はその時暗に相手も私と同じような感じを持っていはしまいかと疑った。そうして腹の中で先生の返事を予期してかかった。(こころ-...
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Meaning of a verb + てまで

I found this construction in a couple of places: 母を失ってまでモチベーションが続かない 君の歌詞を盗んでまで、彼女が唇の動きを真似るメリットがない 人を殺してまで得られる自由 Focusing on the third example, the subtitles is "A freedom that I can attain ...
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Understanding「もともと片親と言えどももう高校生。親と会えないからってどうという年齢でもなかった。」

From 義妹生活 - 1話. 浅村 (who also have single father who is divorced) learned that 綾瀬 grew up with mother who is divorced who works at night everyday and rarely interact with each other. This is the reason ...
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About the meaning of による (cause or dependency?)

I usually see による used as a way to express the cause of something: 震災によってたくさんの人の命が失われた。 There were many people who lost their lives due to the earthquake. But in some places I see it being used as a ...
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柴門を雇うなんてチーム, 柴門なんてを雇うチーム, 柴門を雇うチームなんて

津田監督に逆らって柴門を雇うなんてチームはどこにもいませんよ。 The placement of なんて feels most unlikely to me. I would expect 津田監督に逆らって柴門なんてを雇うチームはどこにもいませんよ。 or 津田監督に逆らって柴門を雇うチームなんてはどこにもいませんよ。 I have always been hesitant about ...
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Parsing「図々しくはなれなかった」

From 義妹生活, 浅村 got asked what does he think about 綾瀬 and it went like this 「……。美人……、だとは思います。はい」素直に答えた。 歯切れが悪くなってしまうのは、これから家族として一緒に暮らす異性のことをそんなふうに形容してしまうことへの罪悪感で胸の奥がモヤモヤするからだ。 人間関係に関するスタンスは近いものがありそうだけど、...
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Can someone explain the double te form? [closed]

I was reading an article on NHK and I came across this こうした歴史から、同じソビエトを構成した国のなかでも、ロシアはウクライナに対して特に“同じルーツを持つ国”という意識を強く持っていていると指摘しています。for full context Can someone explain the usage of double te form ...
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What do arimasu and imasu mean in sentences?

Can someone please translate and explain to me these sentences from a grammar standpoint? Anata no gakkou ni Nani ga arimasu ka? Anata no ie ni Nani ga arimasu ka? Doubutsuen ni Nani ga imasu ka? I ...
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2 votes
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Understanding「のこと、…」

I need help with this long sentence from the novel. My brain stopped working properly on the second part. The context is a guy was having a chat with a girl who complained about getting approached by ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Sentence ending with 先

渋谷駅近くにある大型書店。ハチ公口から出てすぐ、観光客やユーチューバーが三脚や自撮り棒といった思い思いの方法で撮影している風景を横目にスクランブル交差点を渡った先。 The narrator seems to walk across Shibuya Crossing after leaving Hachikou's entrance. But I don't get what 先 is ...
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だ in 「別に迷惑だなんて」

別に迷惑だなんて What kind of difference in meaning or nuances does this だ impart to such an utterance? Examples with だ: 電車から車椅子が降りる時や、車椅子が階段昇降機を使う時に、駅員さんの「ご迷惑をおかけしまーす」という掛け声が聞こえてくるけど、別に迷惑だなんて思ってないから、「...
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What does person+あたり mean?

From 義妹生活 - 1話, 綾瀬 was suspicious about 浅村. She wondered if his family always keep their house clean, their dialogue went like this 「普段からここまで綺麗にしてるの?」 「そりゃあもちろん。塵ひとつ残さず殲滅せよ、ってのが浅村家の家訓なので」 「...
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Help understanding sentence with と

From prologue of 義妹生活 novel ...ひとえに親父が「元気」だったから。よくもまああんな目に遭いながら再婚なんてする気になったと、心の底から尊敬する。物心ついたときから喧嘩ばかりの両親を見て育ってきた俺は、親父に離婚すると聞かされたときはそりゃそうだろうなと思ったし、自分の甲斐性の無さのせいだと頭を下げられたときは、...
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1 answer
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How to say "I speak Japanese but it's not my first language" in Japanese

I'm self-learning Japanese, and I usually struggle with the grammar. Because English is my first language, I was wondering how you would say "I speak Japanese but it's not my first language"....
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1 answer
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「娘と祖父の記憶とを連れて」の「とを」はどう言う意味

「とを」はどういう意味でしょうか。タイポですか? In this short story, the narrator is describing the moment he first fell in love, and how it helped him remember why he has the habit of staring at people’s faces (the reason ...
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Is it の or not in this case?

Is the 2nd image (one below the google translate) more accurate? Is the のですが just completely wrong or? Also I know the Google translate is wrong at the end because I accidentally had a new line after &...
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6 votes
1 answer
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When is it inappropriate to use the pluralizing suffixes -たち, -ら?

In "A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar", it says that there are cases where -tachi cannot be attached to a noun, as in: a. 川本と柴田は大学の教師(*たち)だ。(Kawamoto and Shibata are college ...
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Precedence of A and B in「A (ついでに / がてら / かたがた / を兼ねて) B」

I am bit confused about precedence of A and B in below sentence patterns AついでにB AがてらB AかたがたB Aを兼ねてB In structure「Aを兼ねてB」, B is a main goal and A is a subsidiary goal according to this page. Based ...
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Beku and bekarazu, I don't get how the zu form even become like that or am I thinking of two different verbs?

I was looking at a website for beku and bekarazu, however, I think bekarazu is the zu form of beku and it just doesn't make sense. I would make it べかず instead of べからず because it appeared on a website ...
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What is the proper way to use 個?

If I were to say "one spring onion" would I say 一個ねぎ, 一個のねぎ, or ねぎを一個? This is in the context of cooking, if that makes any difference.
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4 votes
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Can the は particle be a topic and contrast marker at same time?

I know the は particle can function as a topic marker or contrast marker. But can it be topic and contrast marker at the same time? Here are a few examples: A) ビールは飲{の}まない。 B) 肉{にく}は食{た}べないけど魚{さかな}は食{...
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The use of は and も with non-する verbs

When using a する verb, it seems very intuitive to used は and も to add nuance to a statement. 起床はしたんだけれど、まだ寝ボケだった for example. Or something like 確認もしたのにやっぱり誤り見逃した. To my understanding, は and も can be ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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About the Potential Form of Verbs 「られる」 [duplicate]

The Potential Form (can) usually is conjugated by replacing whatever verb ending is based on the verb group. However, I noticed that some verbs such as たべられる can also be written as たべれる. What's the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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A question on subjectivity. たい&たがる

A recent question I asked on Hinative showed that たい can be used when talking about other people's feelings and still be natural. https://hinative.com/en-US/questions/21298937 According to the ...
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Is ん an abbreviation of の here?

The Yomiuri had this sentence recently: こんだけ土【つち】のついた野菜【やさい】触【さわ】ったん、初【はじ】めてですわ I've never touched a vegetable with so much dirt on it before. I have been told that ん can be an abbreviation of の, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to say the vertical vowel extension line in Japanese?

I'm learning katakana these days and my book introduces the horizontal line which is use to lengthen a vowel sound as in internet inta-netto My book says this line is called yoko bou which I can find ...
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2 answers
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What is the correct way to say "Why did the guy with pink camera eat my food?"

ピンクのカメラの人はなぜ自分の飯を食ってしまったのか ピンクのカメラが人はなぜ自分の飯を食ってしまったのか Which particle should be used before 人, の or が ? Please explain the answer
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