Questions tagged [compounds]

複合語. Words formed by putting two or more words or other elements together.

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2
votes
1answer
118 views

What's the difference between 取り消す vs 取り下げる?

I was adding sample sentences to my flash cards when I noticed that 取り消す means withdraw. 前言を取り消す withdraw [retract] one's statement This reminded of a sample sentence for 取り下げる 告訴を取り下げる ...
1
vote
1answer
165 views

Compound word ending with an adjective stem (形容詞語幹) and used as a noun or a na-adjective

The word 大忙{おおいそが}し is classified as a noun or a na-adjective. If I analyze it correctly, the word 大忙し consists of the prefix (接頭語) "大" and the i-adjective stem of "忙しい." In addition, there is no ...
2
votes
2answers
83 views

What's the difference between compound words 複合語 and kanji compound 熟語?

Can someone tell me what's the difference between compound words (fukugougo) and kanji compound (jukugo)? From what I've read, only a combination of two letters from kanji is called compound word. ...
8
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3answers
517 views

A name for common words that use uncommon kanji?

I didn't see a duplicate for this in the similar questions, so here goes. Is there either a list of words like this, or a name for this type of word (made of two very rare/complex kanji, but the word ...
8
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2answers
494 views

Why isn't 日本料理 written as 日本の料理?

Both 日本 and 料理{りょうり} are nouns but why aren't they concatenated with の? I think it should be written as 日本の料理 rather than 日本料理.
4
votes
1answer
406 views

What does the word 「ちゃらくさい」mean?

It comes from the following sentence which is spoken by a boy who normally uses Tokyo dialect. おれもだあ! おれもヘッドギャなんてちゃらくさいもんはいらんっ グローブも体重に関係なくいちばんでっかい十二オンスだ
2
votes
1answer
161 views

what does 素 mean in 素数?

Composite number is translated as 合成数 (by google translation to Japanese), which makes sense. Prime number is called 素数, but what does 素 means here? I am trying to trace the source of it. We ...
6
votes
1answer
782 views

What is 上がり refering to in this sentence?

I came across the following paragraph in a book. 一日の始まりは、まず基礎{きそ}体力の鍛錬{たんれん}。腹筋、屈伸{くっしん}、腕立{うでた}て伏{ふ}せ。お定まりの筋力トレーニングを、呼吸が上がり床{ゆか}に這{は}いつくばるまで 繰{く}り返す。 Is 上がり being used as a noun plus noun ...
3
votes
1answer
139 views

Order of compound particles

I came across the following sentence: 彼氏と大喧嘩して、お前とはもう別れたいとまで言われた。 Why are と and まで in that order? Would "別れたいまでと言われた" be incorrect? Is there a rule concerning the order in which particles must be ...
33
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2answers
6k views

Why is Katakana not pronounced Katagana?

I am a beginner in Japanese and I've noticed that when two words are compounded into one word the first letter of the second word changes. hira + kana = hiragana ko + hayashi = kobayashi ori + kami ...
1
vote
2answers
361 views

Compound words with 漢字 and カタカナ? (例えば:新メニュー)

Today, a magazine about restaurants in my area arrived in my mailbox. It proudly proclaimed : 10月の新メニュー! I am quite curious as to the following points: How is this pronounced ? I would have gone ...
2
votes
2answers
262 views

Pronunciation of 年

The general rule to choose between kun (とし) and on (ネン) readings does not seem to work here. Are 今年, 去年, 来年, 毎年, 半年, etc. different kinds of compounds justifying using different readings? Is this the ...
4
votes
1answer
166 views

Why is the State of the Union Address Called 一般教書演説?

The President of the United States gives a speech referred to in English as the "State of the Union". Why is this speech called 一般教書演説{いっぱんきょうしょえんぜつ} in Japanese?
5
votes
1answer
176 views

grammar - 接続 of compound words ending with verb-ず

In my understanding, the part of speech of a compound word is determined by its ultimate morpheme. (複合語の品詞は、後にくる語(形態素)の品詞によって定まります) 蒸す(V)+暑い(Adj) → 蒸し暑い(Adj) 持つ(V)+物(N)  → 持ち物(N) and a verb ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Is the adjective インディペンデント actually used as an adjective?

I saw a movie labeled インディペンデント作品 The adjective インディペンデント does not end in i and is followed by neither na nor no here. Is this meant as a strange compound noun (katakana + kanji)? Or is this a ...
3
votes
1answer
633 views

How to parse “あけぐち”?

I'm working out my Japanese by trying to read everything around me, including food packages. On my milk carton written inside a large arrow pointing to the spout is "あけぐち" in hiragana. Obviously ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

What does 通常進行 mean in the context of a two week serialized mangaka job?

I can understand both words separately, and even together in some specific contexts. I can't understand the meaning of these two together in the following phrase and context: 「締切りを3日早めてほしいの。...
6
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2answers
170 views

How to pronounce noun compounds

How do I determine the pronounication of compound nouns such as 来年夏. Obviously 来年の夏 is pronounced らいねんのなつ but what happens when I remove the の? Does it just become らいねんなつ? My guess from everything I'...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

The verb after conjugation in たり compound sentence, is still a verb? And if so, why is it despite する being the verb?

雨の日は滑ったり、転んだりする。 If する is the verb, then what is the role of the 転んだり in the grammatical sense? I understand that it is a verb which is transformed into 転んだり in a compound sentence but is it still ...
1
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0answers
44 views

Negation in a verbてverbてはならない/いけない compound

I saw this sample sentence while looking up 乗せる on a dictionary: バスが乗客を乗せたり降ろしたりしているときは注意して通らなくてはならない。 While a bus is loading and unloading, you must be very careful passing it. What I do not ...
7
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2answers
957 views

Does Japanese have morphemes that span two kanji?

I read once (in this comment by Victor Mair on Language Log) that Chinese has single morphemes that span two hanzi. The example given was the Chinese word pútáo 葡萄. At the time, I assumed it applied ...
20
votes
3answers
4k views

Are all kanji compounds considered words?

A friend once commented to me that Japanese has a larger vocabulary than English. I said I didn't think it did, because it wasn't really accurate to call all kanji compounds "words". My friend said I ...
1
vote
1answer
169 views

Adding honorific prefix in a compound construction? (E.g. 買ってくれになる)

I'm currently learning how to use くれる/あげる correctly, and I want to practice using 敬語 in my sentence. However, I am not sure where I should put the pre-verb honorific prefix お used in おVERB+になります as I ...
3
votes
1answer
413 views

What does かけ mean in こわれかけのオルゴール?

If こわれかけのオルゴール was 壊れかけのオルゴール, 壊れ would be the stem of 壊れる, and かけ would probably be a noun. Since I'm just learning Japanese, I don't understand where かけ comes from. What meaning does かけ have in ...
4
votes
1answer
243 views

Compound words and の-particle

I'm not really a smart fellow so, please, be gentle. I have a slight unclearness in the difference between noun+の+noun construction and compound words. Could you help me to understand which of those ...
5
votes
1answer
138 views

Is [馬面]{うまづら} a facial expression or a type of face shape?

馬面 I found it translated as: a horseface, a very long face; horse-faced, very long-faced. Now here we call "long face" to be really sad. So in the translation, I don't know if 馬面 is referring to a ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Do 山人 and 仙人 have the same meaning of they mean different things?

I find that the compounds mean "mountain people" or "hermit". Do these words have some difference in meaning or do they actually mean exactly the same?
4
votes
2answers
392 views

Analyzing breakdown of jukugo

I may just be misunderstanding the etymology of certain words, but I think of certain jukugo e.g. 「大学生」as being derived from patterns like 「大学の学生」, where there is a kanji-level shiritori, leading to a ...
2
votes
2answers
496 views

「~ない」 vs 「無/不/非/未~」, 「的(な)<漢字>」, and general 熟語/漢語 affixes versus grammatical forms)

When trying to write in Japanese, I often come across words that have multiple possible translations into Japanese, and am unsure which one to use. Though it is difficult to make any general rule over ...
1
vote
1answer
201 views

Meaning of verbal suffix ~てくたっとしてしまう

I've come across several cases of verbs with the suffix ~てくたっとしてしまう, but am unsure how to break this suffix down, or what it means exactly. It seems that this is the て-form of the base verb, followed ...
3
votes
1answer
266 views

Why is vegetable 野菜 and not just 菜?

Whenever I see vegetable translated, it seems to always be as 野菜{やさい}. But doesn't 菜 by itself mean vegetable? If so, why add the extra character? I've noticed this in a couple of other cases as ...
4
votes
1answer
232 views

Why does gemination happen in many 真 compounds?

Inspired by https://japanese.stackexchange.com/a/38733/3295 Some examples from Wiktionary: 真っ暗 (makkura, "total darkness") 真っ向 (makkō, "directly opposite", "right in front") 真っ黒 (makkuro, "...
0
votes
2answers
202 views

How should てあがる be used?

Ive seen 立ち上がる&乗ってあがる before,yet I can't tell the difference between them and 立つ|乗る。 For example 早速立ち上がれ!(Hurry and stand up!) エレベーターに乗ってあがる (=I take the elevator and go up.). I haven`t seen any ...
7
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2answers
452 views

人 - on'yomi ニン or ジン rule of thumb

I sometimes have trouble figuring out what on'yomi 人 has in unfamiliar jukugo, and was wondering whether there was any kind of rule-of-thumb for figuring it out, assuming it is the only character ...
3
votes
2answers
155 views

Meaning of 二次遭難{にじそうなん}

Context: the speaker was in a bad situation but got out of it, and has the expectation that the other party is going to scold him for his carelessness. あれだけ注意したのに、まんまと二次遭難してバカだと思ってるんだろ? ほんと、その通りだよ ...
2
votes
1answer
814 views

Are there kanji which are NOT words by themselves (written standalone)?

In other words, are there kanji, which can only be used as a part of a kanji compound and/or with okurigana? For example: 見 - standalone kanji, a word which means "view", "outlook" 見物 - kanji ...
2
votes
1answer
181 views

can the same compound have different readings when having the same meaning?

I know that kanjis can have many readings. But I thought compounds (combinations) had only one meaning. For what I've read in the board, a compound can have different readings for different meanings. ...
2
votes
1answer
398 views

General guidelines for choosing 訓読み vs. 音読み in kanji reading

I am trying to come up with general rules for kanji reading. So far I have the following down: Compound kanji words are read as on'yomi Single kanji words are read as kun'yomi Verbs composed ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Is 大判小判 a word on its own?

While reading a short story I came across the following: 大判小判. I understand that [大判]{おおばん} can refer to a large traditional Japanese coin and [小判]{こばん} can refer to a smaller traditional Japanese ...
6
votes
3answers
677 views

有り難う vs 有難う — Is this the same word?

Do both these words mean "thank you"? If both mean thank you why are they spelled differently? Is one more formal than the other?
6
votes
3answers
589 views

A question about the usage of なるべく

I'm currently studying on my Intermediate Japanese book and I stumbled upon the usage of なるべく, with the meaning of as ~ as possible. The book gives me two examples and with the first one there's no ...
9
votes
4answers
347 views

Was the name for the Shōwa era a voluntary pun?

According to dictionaries, the WA 和 in 昭和 has both the meaning of peace, harmonious and Japan, japanese (although mostly as the first kanji of a compound, such as in 和語). So I wonder how Japanese of ...
5
votes
2answers
128 views

Abbreviating sets of compounds with leading characters in common

I recently asked a question about on- and kun-yomi and in building the title guessed at how the two compounds involved could be contracted; landing on 「音・訓読み」. Is this indeed the correct way of ...
7
votes
2answers
301 views

Is 翻す a former compound verb that merged into its current form?

The verb ひるがえす feels like it is made of two part ひる and かえす but I could not find any references backing this interpretation. And I can't figure out what would be ひる. @snailboat also mentioned くつがえす ...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Is it correct to say 複雑な波長?

My friend heard this in an anime. I can understand 複雑な波長パターン or something along these lines, but just 複雑な波長? Like, you wouldn't say "complex mass" or "complex speed", right? (unless maybe complex ...
10
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2answers
200 views

How do I read 数 in ページ数?

ページ数 means number of pages. Is it すう or かず?
4
votes
1answer
107 views

Why is it 悪魔 and not 悪の魔?

Shouldn't there be の to signify that 悪 modifies 魔? It seems to be a one word and not a phrase, how do we know if a double kanji is such a single word and not two separate ones when reading a text?
6
votes
2answers
612 views

You can use 「押し開ける」 to say “to push open”, but can you say 「押し閉める」 to mean “to push closed”?

For example, consider the following sentences: ドアを押し開ける。 I pushed the door open. ドアを引き開ける。 I pulled the door open. Can you do the same for 閉める? So for example: ドアを押し閉める。 I pushed the door ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the max number of kanji a jukugo can be made of?

So far I haven't seen any jukugo with more than 4 kanji. Is this a limit? Or some of them are made of more than 4 kanji? Also, I've seen jukugo made of other jukugo. Like 高速道路 is composed with two ...
0
votes
2answers
140 views

What does モンスター娘のいる日常 mean? [duplicate]

I can understand モンスター娘 and 日常, but I can't understand モンスター娘のいる.