Questions tagged [classical-japanese]

文語(古文). The classical literary form of the language based on Early Middle Japanese.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Difference お疲れ様です vs お疲れ様でした while leaving from office?

Most of the time, I use to say "お疲れ様です" while someone else leaving the office. But many of my colleagues say "お疲れ様でした". Does it have any difference? Also, I want to know, can we use "お疲れ様です" while ...
2
votes
1answer
179 views

Is there a good historical explanation why we cannot generally use 言う in the 3rd person in the past tense?

Is there a good historical or logical explanation why we cannot generally use 言う in the 3rd person in the past tense? Why do we have to resort to 言っている for the 3rd person part tense (言っていた), unless it ...
6
votes
1answer
335 views

Is there a good etymological reason why the potential form in Japanese requires the が particle?

Is there a good etymological reason why the potential form in Japanese requires the が particle? When dealing with the -たい suffix, which also requires the -が particle for what in other languages would ...
3
votes
1answer
304 views

Is there a reason why the passive and the potential form are identical (at least for える/いる verbs)?

Is there a reason why the passive and the potential form in Japanese are identical (at least for える/いる verbs)? I mean, does one etymologically derive from the other? Or were they perhaps modelled on a ...
5
votes
1answer
288 views

Question about verbs in Old Japanese

Does anybody with in-depth knowledge of Old Japanese know why vowel-based verbal stems could only end in -e or -i (leading to the える/いる or type 2 class of verbs in Modern Japanese)? Why are there no ...
3
votes
1answer
131 views

Is まはりて an archaic form of 廻って, and how is it broken down grammatically?

I came across a cover version of "Bad Apple", where the singer uses a more traditional style than the original song, including a translation of the (modern) lyrics into more archaic/poetic language. ...
2
votes
1answer
158 views

What is the meaning of 「れど」 in the waka poem title 「忍ぶれど」?

「忍ぶれど」 is the title of Taira no Kanemori's waka poem in Ogura Hyakunin Isshu and I'd like to know the translation of this title in English. I already looked up the meanings and 「忍ぶ」 means to ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

What does 形ク mean in japanese?

I was searching for the meaning of "時すでに遅し。" but I couldn't find 遅し in the dictionary goo.ne.jp and weblio tells me that it's おそい with 形ク in parenthesis.
5
votes
1answer
300 views

Cannot recognise the kanji in a cartouche 保里尾[ ][ ][ ]晴

In the context of a C19th work titled Takamatsu no shiro mizuzeme no zu, "Picture of the Flooding of Takamatsu Castle" (髙松城水責之圖 with furigana たかまつのしろみづぜめのづ), there is a name cartouche, but I am ...
0
votes
2answers
200 views

Transcribing iteration marks: kunojiten , くの字点

The iteration marks 々, ヽ, ヾ, ゝ, ゞ are slightly smaller than standard kana, and are often seen in print when a contemporary scholar is transcribing text, a printmaker's seal, etc. My question relates ...
2
votes
2answers
370 views

'to appear': arawareru, arawaruru, and arawaru

Arawareru, あらわれる: "to appear, to come in sight, to become visible, to materialize, to manifest." It looks as if arawareru can be written: 現れる, 現われる, 表れる, 表われる, 顕れる, 顕われる (Readings: 現 = gen, ken, ...
9
votes
1answer
289 views

Did つ (助数詞) actually mean の?

There are quite a few examples were tsu actually means no. まつ毛・睫毛・睫 matsuge actually comes from 目の毛 me no ke (ma is another pronunciation for 目 me) 沖つ宮 okitsumiya(aslo written 沖津宮, but, as Meikyou ...
3
votes
1answer
380 views

Why is 「てふ」 pronounced 「ちょう」?

I recently purchased a copy of One Hundred Leaves: A new annotated translation of the Hyakunin Isshu to try and improve my Japanese reading level. In addition to the English translation, each poem ...
4
votes
1answer
277 views

What verb form is くださねばなるまい

The following is from a mystery manga. The criminal mastermind is lamenting that his accomplice Masumi failed to properly kill Kimisawa. ますみの奴・・・ 最後の最後でしくじったな あの至近距離でよもや急所をはずす ...
4
votes
1answer
164 views

What does 「なりき」 mean in this context?

I came across the sentence 「宇宙KOMAなりき」in a Dragon Ball song. The context is like this: 回り磁極踊れば 大地も空も 世界は巡る 宇宙KOMAなりき The song lyrics are here: http://www.kget.jp/lyric/112532/KOMA_CHIHO What ...
3
votes
1answer
219 views

How do I understand 「わが身世にふる ながめせし間に」

This might be a difficult question but let me give it a try here. I have trouble understanding this poem by 小野小町: 花の色は うつりにけりな いたづらに わが身世にふる ながめせし間に I understand that the words 「ふる」 and 「ながめ」 are ...
8
votes
1answer
331 views

I know that the word 広し means 広い, but which rule or grammar is included?

The sentence is from my textbook みんなの日本語 世界広しといえども ... that means 世界が広いと言っても ... right? But what function has it when you use 広し instead of 広い? During some research I found this Website/ ...
3
votes
1answer
226 views

what is a meaning of しければ in a classical japanese?

I'm stuck with this sentence - "いかにも山の中に只だ独り居たるに人の気はひのしければ少し生き出づる心地して見出だしければ" It's part of the folktale "鬼に瘤取らるる事". I know that ば mean to indicate end of statement in classical japanese, so does it ...
4
votes
2answers
190 views

寄らば from 寄らば大樹の陰

I have trouble understanding the 寄らば from: 寄{よ}らば大樹{たいじゅ}の陰{かげ}. I know it comes from 寄る (to approach/to come near). But how does it becomes 寄らば and what meaning it implies? The ば should be the ...
4
votes
1answer
230 views

What is this 連用形+ゆる grammar? How is it different from the potential form?

I have come across this grammar a lot lately: 連用形+ゆる For example, in this comment, 文語と現代語を交じたる文はインターネットで見ゆるなあ I've also heard しゆる. Judging from the context I think that this grammar is similar ...
4
votes
1answer
93 views

What is the way 召されなば is conjugated?

In a bit old Japanese, the phrase: 草鞋{わらじ}を召{め}されなば means "if you (talking to a superior) put on the straw sandals" (I assume from the context). Where does the conjugation ~なば of 召される come from?
0
votes
1answer
115 views

What do the Long vowel rule and Palatalized long vowel rule represent?

In relation to the Classical Japanese orthography what are the Long vowel (長音 Chōon) rule and the Palatalized long vowel (開拗長音 Kaiyōchōon) rule? What would be some examples of them?
3
votes
1answer
130 views

Where does the particle は come from?

In A Dictionary to Basic Japanese Grammar, it says under the conditional ば that this is the origin of the topic particle は but I haven't been able to find where this claim comes from. Does anyone know ...
4
votes
1answer
304 views

What is かたじけのう?

This is a quotation from a fairy tale. A young man was turned into a samurai: 信じがたきことなれど、拙者サムライでござる。かたじけのうござる。 I read the first part as 'Although it is hard to believe, I am a samurai'. What is ...
7
votes
1answer
198 views

Name of レ点 in 漢文

In 漢文, why is the レ used for レ点? Is it purely a graphic representation of returning to an earlier point in the text, or does レ stand for some word?
0
votes
1answer
842 views

When was this Japanese standard and why this is so different from modern Japanese?

朕󠄁惟フニ我カ皇祖皇宗國ヲ肇󠄁ムルコト宏遠󠄁ニ德ヲ樹ツルコト深厚ナリ我カ臣民克ク忠ニ克ク孝ニ億兆心ヲ一ニシテ世世厥ノ美ヲ濟セルハ此レ我カ國體ノ精華ニシテ敎育ノ淵源亦實ニ此ニ存ス爾臣民父母ニ孝ニ兄弟ニ友ニ夫婦󠄁相和シ朋友相信シ恭儉己レヲ持シ博󠄁愛衆ニ及󠄁ホシ學ヲ修メ業ヲ習󠄁ヒ以テ智能ヲ啓󠄁發シ德器ヲ成就シ進󠄁テ公󠄁益ヲ廣メ世務ヲ開キ常ニ國憲ヲ重シ國法ニ遵󠄁ヒ一旦緩󠄁急󠄁...
9
votes
2answers
487 views

Similarity between 挟む and 狭む

today I came across a certain sentence and I was confused by one word in it: 親指の腹で石を支えながら、人差し指と中指の間に挟む。 When I read this, I mistook 挟む for 狭{せば}む, and apparently, 狭{せば}む is barely used outside ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

What does 「/\」 mean in this sentence?

皆さん、こんにちは! Now, I've been reading 竹取物語 and have come across (another) set of symbols that I've yet to understand. Given the following sentence. かくて翁やう/\豐になり行く。 What does the sudden 「/\」 mean?
6
votes
1answer
1k views

What does「ゝ」mean?

Now, I've been at least trying to read 竹取物語, and in the second sentence of my version it shows a odd symbol that I've yet to see. 野山にまじりて、竹を取りつゝ、萬づの事に使ひけり。 The symbol in question is the 「ゝ」 what ...
5
votes
1answer
659 views

Can 〜んとする mean “to pretend, to act as if”?

I'm trying to understand the meaning of the first sentence: 刀の力で日本を牛耳らんとする玲爾{れいじ}たち。その企みを見抜いた晴馬{はるま}たちは...etc. My translation would be "Reiji and his men are not trying to control Japan with the ...
3
votes
1answer
821 views

Please help me understand this たる?

Please help me understand this たる! 焼きたる 在りたる
8
votes
4answers
614 views

How do Japanese make language sound old (e. g. in historical dramas)?

When English speakers try to make a text sound old (like in historical dramas), they for example use "thou" together with the "-st" verb ending. What's the equivalent in Japanese, i.e. what kind of ...
4
votes
1answer
260 views

Older Jp had much fewer particles (助詞) ? — The modern “use ALL the particles” written style

. . . A perhaps pedantic comment: The idea that everything has a particle in theory, which is either "dropped" or not, is actually relatively modern. In earlier forms of Japanese, there were ...
3
votes
1answer
199 views

Questions about 絵本 by 林芙美子

I'm reading several short texts as a part of a university course that's starting this fall, but I'm having problem understand parts of this one text. It's called 絵本 and is written by 林芙美子 http://www....
4
votes
1answer
177 views

形容詞 that end in ~しい but were not シク活用 in 古文

I know that in general, if a 形容詞 in modern Japanese ends in ~しい, then it was originally a シク活用形容詞, with 終止形 ~し and 連體形 ~しき. I also know that in the Late Middle Japanese period, シク adjectives ...
21
votes
3answers
5k views

What form is あり?

On the road outside my daughter's nursery is painted 保育園アリ. I guess this is a form of ある, but what's it called, and why is あり used not ある?
3
votes
2answers
301 views

The meaning of 二条大宮の百鬼夜行

早い話が堀川のお邸の御規模を拝見致しましても、壮大と申しませうか、豪放と申しませうか、到底私どもの凡慮には及ばない、思ひ切つた所があるやうでございます。中にはまた、そこを色々とあげつらつて大殿様の御性行を始皇帝や煬帝に比べるものもございますが、それは諺に云ふ群盲の象を撫でるやうなものでもございませうか。あの方の御思召は、決してそのやうに御自分ばかり、栄耀栄華をなさらうと申すのではございません。...
4
votes
1answer
174 views

What is the ki used for in this sentence? 懐かし き 故郷 [duplicate]

I'm translating a song as part of a project. What is ki used for? Is it a prefix for kokyou? Natsukashi ki kokyou 晴天の日の少々、感傷に浸る午後 懐かしき故郷 夢見な理想郷 忘れがちな嘘 あるまじきEmotion 企みし今生の消せぬ怨霊の炎
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Recognizing old Japanese handwriting

Can you please help me with recognizing this line in old Japanese handwriting? As I suppose, this is: ? やき ? っすれ ? の二 but it's most likely that I am wrong
0
votes
1answer
391 views

Two different polite forms of the conditional conjugation

I've noticed some dictionaries give two different results for the polite form of the conditional form, I'll use the verb 戦う for example. I am familiar with 戦いませば but not with 戦いますれば. Some ...
3
votes
2answers
216 views

What is the meaning of 幾里?

I took up a personal translation project--lyrics to a song from a game I played--recently, and one of the words is giving me trouble. The line out of the song is 我れ幾里の路を共に往かむ, and I can understand ...
8
votes
2answers
173 views

What is しか here?

[至誠]{しせい}に[悖]{もと}る[勿]{な}かりしか [言行]{げんこう}に[恥]{は}づる[勿]{な}かりしか... What part of speech is it? Wiki translates it as 真心に反する点はなかったか, which going by meaning only fits with 2(連語) here, but I couldn't find ...
-4
votes
1answer
205 views

is there a way to display the hito/jin 人 in non-simplified form?

is there a way to display the hito/jin 人 in non-simplified form ? I see kanji IMAGES everywhere on the net. but I'm looking for a unicode character like the old Chinese Lishu script. I see it in ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

Help with understanding a sentence

詩の生命は暗示にして単なる事象の説明には非ず。かの筆にも言語にも言ひ尽し難き情趣の限なき振動のうちに幽かなる心霊の欷歔をたづね、縹渺たる音楽の愉楽に憧がれて自己観想の悲哀に誇る、これわが象徴の本旨に非ずや。されば我らは神秘を尚び... full Is it (syntax-wise) correct to take(かの筆にも言語にも言ひ尽し難き情趣の限なき振動のうちに幽かなる心霊の欷歔をたづね、...
4
votes
1answer
655 views

Translating 鳴神の少し響みてさし曇り… etc

This passage of the movie, Kotonoha No Niwa: 鳴る神の 少し響みてさし曇り 雨も降らぬか きみを留めむ Several sites translate as: A faint clap of thunder, clouded skies. Perhaps rain will come. If so, will ...
3
votes
1answer
186 views

What is せる followed by suru-verbs?

専売特許に違背せる物品 infringements on patents 和英字書を編集せるはヘボン博士をもって嚆矢とす。Dr. Hepburn was the first to compile a Japanese-English dictionary. Is it する・す mizenkei followed by り rentaikei (here), or something else?
4
votes
1answer
336 views

How is を used here?

この大作の完成を願えども余命とぼしきを如何せん。I had hoped to finish writing this novel, but I'm afraid I have little time left. 貧窮なるを如何せん。I am poor, so what can I do? In the sentences above is ヲ used as a conjunctive ...
5
votes
2answers
319 views

Couple of classical Japanese questions

I found a poem by Nagai Kafu entitled 震災 (The Earthquake) in a volume of Japanese prose and poetry. It's a short poem about the Ansei Edo Earthquake (安政江戸地震) in 1855 which destroyed the red light ...
7
votes
2answers
496 views

What the grammar/syntax of 御来駕被成下度奉懇願候?

Dictionary translation is "I beg you will favour me with your company―I request the pleasure of your company." 御来駕被成下度奉懇願候 I can only surmise about ご来駕 noun 懇願候 verb (ask), sourou being a polite ...
3
votes
1answer
225 views

Is the negative in ゆめ人に洩らし給えそ implicit?

ゆめ人に洩らし給えそ Never breathe a syllable of it to any one! (NEW斎藤和英大辞典) Is negative meaning here implied but not stated explicitly? ゆめ = 必ず, そ = ぞ as bound particle (it could be negative final particle そ, ...