Questions tagged [auxiliary-ず]

打消しの補助動詞. Classical auxiliary for negating a predicate, having the same function as ない. This auxiliary is still commonly found in fixed patterns (e.g. ~ざるを得ない or ~ずに) or its 連体形 can merely be used instead of ない to give a formal and archaic tone.

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65
votes
7answers
21k views

What is the difference between the negative forms -ず and -ぬ?

-ず and -ぬ are two alternatives to the negative form -ない / -ません. But I noticed that depending on the word, it's either -ず or -ぬ, although it seems like some words can take both suffixes. Some examples ...
9
votes
3answers
705 views

When ない becomes ぬ

Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"? Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the difference between 〜ないではいられない and 〜ずにはいられない

I was taught that these two phrases are interchangeable and have the same meaning. However, I recently wrote a few practice sentences using this grammar point and they were corrected to use ずには ...
6
votes
2answers
203 views

Help for this expression: 猿は人間に毛が[三筋]{みすじ}足らぬ

I read this expression in a text. It seems to be an old proverb about monkeys. But I am not sure about its meaning. Why 筋, for instance? Does it mean muscle? reasoning faculty? Why would they be ...
5
votes
1answer
303 views

What does the ぬ in 詰まぬ mean?

I encountered a Shogi saying: 三桂あって詰まぬこと無し And I'm pretty confused about the ぬ there. If it was る I'd expect the meaning to be something like: "If you have 3 knights, you can't be mated" But ...
5
votes
1answer
132 views

Why じと instead of ず in その機を逃さじと? [duplicate]

硝煙で、鏑木肆星氏の姿は完全に覆い尽くされてしまう。その機を逃さじと、二匹のバケネズミが突進した。 I think その機を逃さじと means "not letting their chance slip away". But why isn't it just その機を逃さず?
4
votes
2answers
2k views

せず - What does it come from?

気にするまいと思っても、気にせずにはいられない。 In above sentence, I guess せず means しない, but what is the original form, and how does it become せず?
4
votes
1answer
342 views

“ji” ending on verb “nai” stem?

My question is from this sentence. It is from the "Easy Japanese" YouTube videos: 秋雨や我がすげみのはまだ濡らさじ Why "nurasaji"? I would understand "mada nurasanai" - not yet wet - but why "ji"?
4
votes
1answer
122 views

How is 百にも足らぬ used here?

How is 百にも足らぬ used here? 「算え{かぞえ}十九の若さで御供頭の大役を仰せつかるとは、冥加{みょうが}な話よのう」背戸{せど}の畑から戻ってきた叔父は、野良着のまま囲炉裏端に座りこむと、まるきり他人事のように言った。 「お言葉ではございますが叔父上、冥加と申されるのもいかがなものかと」 一路{いちろ}は憮然として抗った。武士だか百姓だかもわからぬ叔父は、...
3
votes
1answer
284 views

Conjugation of negative auxiliary 〜ぬ

〜ない functions the same way as an adjective, and so it can be conjugated to 〜なかった, 〜なくて, and so on. As far as I can tell, this is not case for 〜ぬ. Does it function as a standalone suffix, or is it able ...
2
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1answer
101 views

What does 帰れん mean?

from the youtube channel 釣れるまで帰れん is it won't go back or can't go back if translated or neither?
2
votes
2answers
304 views

The meaning of しなければならず in this article

What's the meaning of しなければならず in this article? 「拘束中に、事情があってイスラム教に改宗しなければならず、そこで自分で『ウマル』というのを選んでいた。彼らが設定したルールに従って言った」と説明し link to the original and complete phrase
2
votes
2answers
144 views

Translation for 食べ物を腐らせずに保存する

Saw this in my textbook. The translation is "to preserve food from decay". I get it, but I am not clear about the ず after 腐らせる. Where is it coming from?
2
votes
0answers
62 views

Difference ~ぬ and ~ず [duplicate]

What is the difference between the negatives ~ぬ and ~ず, e.g. 。。。飲まず 。。。飲まぬ Thanks
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Does the negative ずに form have a connective function like the te form does?

I know ずに is a form of negation for verbs, but I'm uncertain as to how its being used in the following context other than as a negation for the verb わかる. 昨晩アインは夜明けまで時間をくれた。それまでに生きるか死ぬかを決めさせてくれるという。...
0
votes
2answers
2k views

What does 見ぬ/minu mean in this sentence?

The phrase is: mada minu kimi e tsudzuku. I believe the kana is: まだ見ぬきみへつづく。