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Questions tagged [auxiliary-ず]

打消しの補助動詞. Classical auxiliary for negating a predicate, having the same function as ない. This auxiliary is still commonly found in fixed patterns (e.g. ~ざるを得ない or ~ずに) or its 連体形 can merely be used instead of ない to give a formal and archaic tone.

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62
votes
7answers
18k views

What is the difference between the negative forms -ず and -ぬ?

-ず and -ぬ are two alternatives to the negative form -ない / -ません. But I noticed that depending on the word, it's either -ず or -ぬ, although it seems like some words can take both suffixes. Some examples ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the difference between 〜ないではいられない and 〜ずにはいられない

I was taught that these two phrases are interchangeable and have the same meaning. However, I recently wrote a few practice sentences using this grammar point and they were corrected to use ずには ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

せず - What does it come from?

気にするまいと思っても、気にせずにはいられない。 In above sentence, I guess せず means しない, but what is the original form, and how does it become せず?
3
votes
1answer
275 views

Conjugation of negative auxiliary 〜ぬ

〜ない functions the same way as an adjective, and so it can be conjugated to 〜なかった, 〜なくて, and so on. As far as I can tell, this is not case for 〜ぬ. Does it function as a standalone suffix, or is it able ...
9
votes
3answers
584 views

When ない becomes ぬ

Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"? Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name ...
2
votes
2answers
140 views

Translation for 食べ物を腐らせずに保存する

Saw this in my textbook. The translation is "to preserve food from decay". I get it, but I am not clear about the ず after 腐らせる. Where is it coming from?