Questions tagged [auxiliaries]

助動詞. Inflecting function words or endings such as 〜ます and 〜ない. Many inflect like verbs (such as 〜(ら)れる), but many others do not (such as 〜たい), so here we will call these simply "auxiliaries" and not "auxiliary verbs". These should be distinguished from 補助動詞(ほじょどうし), which are tagged "subsidiary verbs" on this site to avoid confusion.

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2
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1answer
136 views

What's the etymology of まほし?

What's the etymology of まほし? Considering it goes after the 未然形, is it something like む -> ま (未然形) + [欲]{ほ}し, or is it a totally different etymology altogether? Thanks in advance.
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Where does the -a stem come from with auxiliary-constructed transitive/intransitive verb pairs if the base verb is a 二段活用 (or カ行変格活用)?

It seems to be generally understood that transitive/intransitive verb pairs, when they are not a 四段活用 and a 二段活用 that share the same 終止形, were created by taking a base verb, whether transitive or ...
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50 views

Where does the か in なかった come from? [duplicate]

So I'm trying to understand Genki's preferred past negative form of です, that is: じゃなかったです. I'm confused by the なかった. As I understand it from this source, this is a combination of two 助動詞: the 連用形 ...
3
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1answer
131 views

Is ~がる used to speak about animals?

Does the practice of not speaking directly about others' minds, but using ~がる to be indirect, apply to animals? i.e., would you ever say something like "犬は外に行きたがっている"? If so, does this vary ...
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1answer
129 views

What is the difference between しない and じゃない?

So as the title says, What is the difference between しない and じゃない? And is じゃない even a verb? I know that しない comes from する. It's in the negative form. (It should be mizenkei) But when I tried to ...
3
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1answer
186 views

What is the meaning of らん in ゆくらん?

I saw it in this tanka that I'm trying to translate: 偽のある世にだにもふるさとの契りわすれず雁のゆくらん
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1answer
47 views

に/へ/が/か in describing place

冬休{ふゆやすみ}みはどこ [か] 行{い}きましたか. In the above sentence, I learned [か] can be used to express uncertainty, which means the person asking this question has no idea if the person being asked went to some ...
3
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1answer
427 views

Is there really any difference between だなんて and なんて?

1.「精霊の力を封印できるだなんて規格外の能力、持っているのはこの世にあなた一人だけよ。ーーそのあなたが嫌だと言うのだもの。もうどうしようもないじゃない」 2.「む……そうか。そうだな。シドーから鳶一折紙の匂いがするだなんて、私はどうしてしまったのだろか。シドーがあの女をおぶったりでもしない限り、匂いが付くだなんてありえないというのに」 Hi. I’m reading a novel and I’...
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1answer
87 views

Concept of Negative Form of Auxiliary Verbs

I was studying different auxiliaries and I am having a hard time understanding those auxiliaries which have their meanings attached with them. Following the those auxiliaries and questions: てみる - ...
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1answer
127 views

Can the auxiliary verb Vteみる along with Vteいる i.e. Vteみている make the imperfect verb into a perfect verb

I just got a hang of Vteいる form, and was studying Vteみる and I wanted to ask whether, the Vteみる form causes the imperfect verb to become perfect (for that purposes). Background of the concept ている: ...
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1answer
147 views

Why じと instead of ず in その機を逃さじと? [duplicate]

硝煙で、鏑木肆星氏の姿は完全に覆い尽くされてしまう。その機を逃さじと、二匹のバケネズミが突進した。 I think その機を逃さじと means "not letting their chance slip away". But why isn't it just その機を逃さず?
4
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1answer
233 views

ください without て form and auxiliary verbs

I read the following sentence on the shinkansen: かけ込み電車は危ないのでおやめください I looked up on Google but I could not find any mention of やめる being used without the て form. So why is it the case in that ...
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2answers
173 views

がる passive form

In the following sentence, the verb がる appears to be used in passive form when the speaker is describing herself as a child: 私は少し奇妙がられる子供だった What does がる indicate when used in passive form? ...
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1answer
185 views

Which categories of verbs (transitive, atelic, etc) can you use with ~そう (seems to; appears)?

I've just studied そう (as in: seems like; about to) in class and I wanted to know why you can use some verbs and not others. For instance, 雨が{あめが}降りそう{ふりそう} works out semantically and grammatically, ...
2
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1answer
122 views

Given the context, what is the correct way to parse this sentence segment 次に訊くべき言葉が出てこない。?

この寒さをしのげそうな防寒服を手渡され、それを着込みながら僕は彼女に質問した。 「君は……」 [名前なら、ないわ] こちらから訊くより先に、低く呟くような声が返ってきた。 「呼びにくければアインと呼んで。 いつもそう呼ばれてたから」 質問の出鼻をくじかれ、次に訊くべき言葉が出てこない。 My western brain doesn't ...
3
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2answers
291 views

Are there any consistent rules as to how to distinguish words in Japanese?

I got involved with tokenization (mecab, kuromoji) and got confused as to what a "word" is in the Japanese language. Scenario 1: "たべません" analyzed by a tokenizer, outputs the following tokens: たべ ...
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103 views

How can I use the conditional ~ば and desiderative ~たい together?

I think the title is self-explanatory. I've been wondering how to combine the desiderative (たい) and the conditional (えば/たら). For example, if I want to say "Excuse me, what should I do if I want to ...
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1answer
117 views

Are there any differences between 〜けらず and 〜ざりけり? Are they interchangeable?

Was ~ざりけり used in place of 〜けらず, for example in 知りけらず, to indicate the past tense in the negative form? Did 知らざりけり exist?
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2answers
133 views

Elongated お in the volitional verb form

In native Japanese words (that I know of at least) like 通り and 大きい, to elongate the お-sound, another お is added when written in Hiragana (instead of う like in Sino-Japanese words). However, it just ...
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128 views

出す as an auxiliary verb

It is my understanding that there are two different meanings when 出す is used as an auxiliary verb. One example being 走り出す meaning 'to start to run' and an example of the other being 生み出す meaning to '...
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2answers
174 views

How did でしょうand だろう come to mean “probably”?

This is something I have been struggling with for long time. I don't see why, I don't understand how でしょう and だろう convey the meaning of "probably" as in sentences such as 雨が降るでしょう。It simply doesn't ...
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2answers
7k views

Auxiliary verbs in Japanese

What are auxiliary verbs in Japanese language? Which verbs are auxiliary and how to tell which are auxiliaries, and which are normal? It looks like the word です is an auxiliary verb. But why? What ...
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1answer
235 views

clause ending ようで clarification

でも生徒同士で序列をつけるようで、こうした風習もどうもね…… 手はまったく届かなかったが願いは届いたようで、謎の生命体は翼をはためかせてメアの頭に着地した あいつの意見が正しかったことだけは認めざるを得ないようで、亮二もそれ以上食って掛かりはしなかった。 俺もノートに向かい続ける授業は苦手なようで、自然に体を動かす実技授業が多くなった I can't really ...
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2answers
279 views

What is the correct way to attach 〜そう to the start of a noun? [duplicate]

Take for example the following, よさそう which means (it) looks good. Is it possible for one to attach a 〜そう phrase to the start of a noun? Taking a good apple as an example sentence, are any of the ...
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1answer
138 views

What is the conjugation form, grammar of もうすぐ込んできそう ?

アナウンス:皆様、本日はご来場ありがとうございます。午前十時現在の各館の 混雑状況と催しものの お知らせをいたします。まず、ロボット館はただいま、 一時間待ちとなっております。ロボット館のレ ストランではロボットがランチ をお席までお運びをするサービスをしております。お昼近くになります と、さ らに混雑が見込まれます。次に、未来館は現在すぐにお入りいただけます。なお、 ...
2
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1answer
181 views

Is ょう still one single word/助動詞 in the expression しましょう?

Kuromoji is a Japanese tokenizer. When using it on the expression しましょう, it gave the following analysis: Surface form Part-of-Speech Base form Reading Pronunciation し 動詞,自立,*,* ...
3
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1answer
691 views

受け身形, 使役形, and 使役受け身形: A side by side comparison practice

受け身形, 使役形, and 使役受け身形. These forms confuse me to no end. Therefore, I have done a sort of comparison practice using these forms side by side. Each sentence is followed by my translation, and then a ...
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1answer
151 views

「〜すぎる」と「〜まくる」はどう違いますか。

question: Is there a difference in feeling for the words? Like すぎる feels more negative with an emphasis on disagreement with the action taken, while まくる is more about the amount? Examples I came ...
4
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3answers
264 views

How to translate 'She was made to make him give me the book'?

How to translate 'She was made to make him give me the book'? (as in: 'someone made her make him give me the book.') Can I translate it to: Kanojo wa watasi-ni kare-ni hon-o kure-sase-sase-rare-ta. ...
1
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1answer
69 views

人間は普通ここに来れんのになあ I Know it means Humans Cannot Come here usually

人間は普通ここに来れんのになあ I Know it means Humans Cannot Come here usually. but doesn't 来られます Means can come Potential Form But 来れ Then ん Confuses me.
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1answer
128 views

verb-casual ような (possible translation)

東都大学の国際交流クラブでは、外国人と日本人が一緒に楽しめるような行事を企画したり紹介したりしている。 How should I translate this ような? The only possible translation to me is "in order that".. am I wrong?
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2answers
526 views

Why 寝たよう instead of 寝そう in this example

I was going through a JLPT grammar practice book and am confused on a question: 「一郎、まだ起きているかな。」 「部屋の電気が消えているから、もう_____よ。」 I choose 寝そう since ~そう is often used to make conjectures based on visual ...
3
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1answer
164 views

Grammar justification for 連用形 + 係助詞「は」+(ない・ある)

So recently I came across these two answers to two very interesting questions, and related: one and two. Both mention the following form: (連用形{れんようけい} of something) + (optional 係助詞{かかりじょし}) + (...
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1answer
164 views

What does 開けたかった mean?

From the novel The Old Man and the Sea. Japanese translation on Aozora: http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/001847/files/57347_57224.html 「食ったほうがいいか?」 「そう言ってるじゃないか」少年は優しく答えた。「サンチャゴの用意ができてから蓋を開けたかったんだ」 ...
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2answers
385 views

meaning of みんべえ

The full sentence comes from the story of 力太郎. Here it is: 「ばあさん や。この あか で にんぎょう を つくって みんべえ。」 I understand all the words except みんべえ, which I couldn't find in my dictionary. Is this an old ...
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1answer
226 views

Meaning of verbal suffix ~てくたっとしてしまう

I've come across several cases of verbs with the suffix ~てくたっとしてしまう, but am unsure how to break this suffix down, or what it means exactly. It seems that this is the て-form of the base verb, followed ...
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1answer
1k views

how to use ~そう past tense

If I want to say, "you look tired", 疲れそう doesn't work, as that is "looks like I/you will get tired", but is 疲れたそう a thing? feels wrong... Is it possible to use ~そう past tense? past negative? Is there ...
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4answers
2k views

Does the ''te form'' literally mean something on its own?

All other forms of verbs inherently seem to have some kind of meaning but te needs to be combined with things before it means anything. Does it mean anything on its own that makes what it ends up ...
7
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1answer
228 views

未然形 of である and 連用形 of だ

When I checked the entry of 助動詞 「だ」 in the dictionary, I found the following example sentence: 「学生は怠けるべきではない」 Does the fact that で is in bold mean that で in ではない is actually the 連用形 of 「だ」? But ...
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1answer
124 views

What's a good grammatical antonym for the auxiliary verb 始める?

What's a good grammatical opposite for the auxiliary usage of the verb 始める, meaning that you're describing the beginning of a verb?
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1answer
1k views

What dialect is !〜べ?

What dialect is それはねぇべ (それはないだろう)? It seems I hear it a lot from people from Chiba. Is it from a specific part of Chiba or even a wider area?
2
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1answer
592 views

Problems with そうです in this sentence

留守番電話に伝言入れたのに、それを 聞かなかったそうです 。 So, the problem I have is the following: In my textbook, I learned that ます-stem + そうです means "to seem", like "雨が降りそうです。" Then, dictionary form + そうです means hearsay, ...
3
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1answer
132 views

Curious about the phrase “しまいと” in a book I'm reading

I'm re-reading/translating a section of 金原ひとみ's 星へ落ちる for a translation course I'm taking and ran into the following sentence: 彼がこの家にいない時、私は彼があの人と食事しているところとあの人とセックスしているところを想像しまいと、...
7
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1answer
563 views

Origin of ません (-masen)?

I understand that polite forms like yomimasu are actually (or originated as) infinitive yomi + auxiliary verb masu in its plain non-past form. Then past form yomimashita is just infinitive yomi + ...
2
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3answers
265 views

I have a question about this form そうな/そうに

ねむくなってしまいそうに癒される。 I can't figure out what this sentence is saying. I've asked my girlfriend and my coworkers (both Japanese) about そうに and they can't explain it. (One of my coworkers said it means 'a/...
7
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3answers
23k views

What's the rule for expressing “I don't want to”

As far as I know, for expressing you want to do something, you have to just attach たい to the verb stem like in カニを食べたい。 Then, what's the rule for saying "I don't want to". I've seen in this phrase ...
8
votes
3answers
298 views

Difference between 「彷徨う」 and 「彷徨える」、「狂う」 and 「狂える」 etc

In 大辞林, the definition of さまよえる as in さまよえるオランダ人 is あてもなくさまよっている。 while the (primary) definition of さまよう is 当てもなく、あるいは目指す所が見つからずにあちこち歩き回る。 What's the difference between the two words, and ...
7
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1answer
307 views

ほしがっている versus ほしそうだ

I don't really understand the differences between the following sentences. 彼は新しい車をほしがっている。 彼は新しい車をほしそうだ。 In both sentences, the speakers made conjectures based on the sign that the third person (彼) ...
5
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3answers
350 views

Why is there a な in this sentence?

I am translating the following sentence I found in my workbook. 美味しそうな写真を見て、思わず[涎]{よだれ}が出た。 美味しい is an i-adjective, so why is there a な?
14
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1answer
1k views

Understand the difference between [dictionary/ない + ようとする] and [volitional + にする]

I have come across a couple of concepts that seem relatively similar, but I would like an understanding on their differences, if any. The first is the dictionary/ない form + ようとする. And the other is the ...