Questions tagged [auxiliaries]

助動詞. Inflecting function words or endings such as 〜ます and 〜ない. Many inflect like verbs (such as 〜(ら)れる), but many others do not (such as 〜たい), so here we will call these simply "auxiliaries" and not "auxiliary verbs". These should be distinguished from 補助動詞(ほじょどうし), which are tagged "subsidiary verbs" on this site to avoid confusion.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
0 answers
129 views

Pitch accent of ~ちまう and ~ちゃう

The pitch accent of ~てしまう is fairly obvious. The pitch accent of the て-form is well-documented and しまう is just a 平板 verb. As for the contracted forms ~ちまう and ~ちゃう, I have come across conflicting ...
dekinai's user avatar
  • 231
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Why is the れる conjugation sometimes combined with て?

Whenever I'm looking at Japanese there are times where I notice the れる conjugation is cut off. As an example, instead of する turning into される, it changes to されて. From what I know, れる is a past tense so ...
Lemmy123's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
154 views

~すまいて after a verb

I've come across this sentence with ~すまいて after a verb. I've never seen it like that before, but I'm assuming it is a form of ~済まい: 「いくらも進んでおりませぬよ。儂の命のあるうちに終わりますまいて」 I can't make any progress. It ...
NobleGuy's user avatar
  • 410
2 votes
1 answer
155 views

Why can't 連体形 verbs be in the past tense?

While reading IMABI's entry on まで, I saw the following table: Here the 連体形, or the attributive form of a Japanese verb, is characterized as being "non-past". This resource states: In ...
George's user avatar
  • 2,792
2 votes
2 answers
517 views

Why is 売っています correct, as opposed to 売ってあります?

As I understand, inanimate objects are referred to using あります. Why, then, is it コンビニでお握りを売っています Both subject and object are inanimate. Are we still assuming a salesperson? What if it's a self-...
Zubo's user avatar
  • 191
2 votes
1 answer
225 views

べきはず combined, what does it mean?

I was reading 吾輩は猫である and this sentence came to me: 第一毛をもって装飾されべきはずの顔がつるつるしてまるで薬缶【やかん】だ Can someone explain it to me please?
bulgur69's user avatar
  • 575
2 votes
1 answer
77 views

Can よ from volitional form be dropped? Heres some context

Recently, I saw this in a Hinative answer. 使うとするなら I know that とする means to "try to" and なら means if so I'm guessing it means if try to use, but why not use 使おうとするなら? This brings up the ...
Liam fenlon's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
111 views

Negation in 未然形 + む(ん)

This question has been inspired by this Q&A, from which I learned about 未然形 + む(ん)'s various functions. I noticed two lines on the reference page @naruto points to under 推量, both seemingly sharing ...
Eddie Kal's user avatar
  • 11.5k
2 votes
1 answer
537 views

How does 形容詞+かる work in Classical Japanese?

I remember reading previously that かる could not be used attributively(1), but that does raise the question: For what else could a 連体形 have been used in the first place? Was it simply an alternate form ...
John's user avatar
  • 154
2 votes
2 answers
295 views

Meaning of いく in 言っていきたい

自分の経験を話して気持ちが軽くなりました。また同じことが起きないように国に言っていきたいです。(source) By talking about our own experiences the mood lightens. We want to keep on talking to the nation so the same thing doesn't happen again. いく ...
user3856370's user avatar
  • 29.9k
1 vote
1 answer
133 views

Difference using そう with various verb forms?

I'm doing some reviews on Bunpro and I got this sentence: 今晩雨が___。 And I knew it wanted the verb 降る, and that it wanted me to use そう. So I put in ふりそう, and was surprised to see that it actually ...
StrixVaria's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
297 views

じ/ず conversion in 人は動かじ

There is this famous quote reputedly from 山本五十六: やってみせて、言って聞かせて、やらせてみて、 ほめてやらねば人は動かじ。(source) やってみせ、言ってきかせて、させてみて、誉めてやらねば人は動かじ。(a different version. source) Do it and show'em; say things and make'em ...
Eddie Kal's user avatar
  • 11.5k
1 vote
1 answer
140 views

It seems だ can be omitted in とは思う?

いたずらに会議体を作って、賛否両論を並べ、これ以上時間を費やすのは賢明とは思えません。(source) しかし、何時までも状況改善を待つことは賢明とは思えません。(source) 今日のあなたの服装はとても仕事向きの服装とは思えませんが。(source) I am under the impression after a 名詞/形容動詞, 「だとは思えません」 and the だ-less 「...
Eddie Kal's user avatar
  • 11.5k
3 votes
1 answer
235 views

なさい and ください using い-stem instead of う-stem

I'm curious as to why these two verbs use their い-stem, instead of う like ます does after the い-stem and くれる/あげる/おく do after the て form. (I know the two are aru special class verbs.) Does this have to ...
user48723's user avatar
  • 127
1 vote
2 answers
195 views

Verb endings before ように

I was reading the textbook 日本語総まとめ N3 and in one of the sections there are shown 2 meanings ように can assume: first for providing explanations (ex.: ここに書いてあるように、今度の木曜日、授業は午前中だけです and 皆さまご存じのように、...
Elizabeth Middleford's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
200 views

What's the etymology of まほし?

What's the etymology of まほし? Considering it goes after the 未然形, is it something like む -> ま (未然形) + [欲]{ほ}し, or is it a totally different etymology altogether? Thanks in advance.
LittleWhole's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
369 views

Where does the -a stem come from with auxiliary-constructed transitive/intransitive verb pairs if the base verb is a 二段活用 (or カ行変格活用)?

It seems to be generally understood that transitive/intransitive verb pairs, when they are not a 四段活用 and a 二段活用 that share the same 終止形, were created by taking a base verb, whether transitive or ...
LittleWhole's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
58 views

Where does the か in なかった come from? [duplicate]

So I'm trying to understand Genki's preferred past negative form of です, that is: じゃなかったです. I'm confused by the なかった. As I understand it from this source, this is a combination of two 助動詞: the 連用形 ...
romnempire's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
137 views

Is ~がる used to speak about animals?

Does the practice of not speaking directly about others' minds, but using ~がる to be indirect, apply to animals? i.e., would you ever say something like "犬は外に行きたがっている"? If so, does this vary ...
grayshirt's user avatar
  • 133
0 votes
1 answer
664 views

What is the difference between しない and じゃない?

So as the title says, What is the difference between しない and じゃない? And is じゃない even a verb? I know that しない comes from する. It's in the negative form. (It should be mizenkei) But when I tried to ...
Roo Tenshi's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
443 views

What is the meaning of らん in ゆくらん?

I saw it in this tanka that I'm trying to translate: 偽のある世にだにもふるさとの契りわすれず雁のゆくらん
Paloma's user avatar
  • 87
0 votes
1 answer
53 views

に/へ/が/か in describing place

冬休{ふゆやすみ}みはどこ [か] 行{い}きましたか. In the above sentence, I learned [か] can be used to express uncertainty, which means the person asking this question has no idea if the person being asked went to some ...
lincr's user avatar
  • 149
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is there really any difference between だなんて and なんて?

1.「精霊の力を封印できるだなんて規格外の能力、持っているのはこの世にあなた一人だけよ。ーーそのあなたが嫌だと言うのだもの。もうどうしようもないじゃない」 2.「む……そうか。そうだな。シドーから鳶一折紙の匂いがするだなんて、私はどうしてしまったのだろか。シドーがあの女をおぶったりでもしない限り、匂いが付くだなんてありえないというのに」 Hi. I’m reading a novel and I’...
chino alpha's user avatar
  • 4,171
1 vote
1 answer
151 views

Concept of Negative Form of Auxiliary Verbs

I was studying different auxiliaries and I am having a hard time understanding those auxiliaries which have their meanings attached with them. Following the those auxiliaries and questions: てみる - ...
APK's user avatar
  • 197
1 vote
1 answer
215 views

Can the auxiliary verb Vteみる along with Vteいる i.e. Vteみている make the imperfect verb into a perfect verb

I just got a hang of Vteいる form, and was studying Vteみる and I wanted to ask whether, the Vteみる form causes the imperfect verb to become perfect (for that purposes). Background of the concept ている: ...
APK's user avatar
  • 197
3 votes
1 answer
198 views

Why じと instead of ず in その機を逃さじと? [duplicate]

硝煙で、鏑木肆星氏の姿は完全に覆い尽くされてしまう。その機を逃さじと、二匹のバケネズミが突進した。 I think その機を逃さじと means "not letting their chance slip away". But why isn't it just その機を逃さず?
Axe's user avatar
  • 3,336
4 votes
1 answer
313 views

ください without て form and auxiliary verbs

I read the following sentence on the shinkansen: かけ込み電車は危ないのでおやめください I looked up on Google but I could not find any mention of やめる being used without the て form. So why is it the case in that ...
Lord Yalet's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
213 views

がる passive form

In the following sentence, the verb がる appears to be used in passive form when the speaker is describing herself as a child: 私は少し奇妙がられる子供だった What does がる indicate when used in passive form? ...
Ramoose's user avatar
  • 105
5 votes
1 answer
193 views

Which categories of verbs (transitive, atelic, etc) can you use with ~そう (seems to; appears)?

I've just studied そう (as in: seems like; about to) in class and I wanted to know why you can use some verbs and not others. For instance, 雨が{あめが}降りそう{ふりそう} works out semantically and grammatically, ...
Beza ベザ's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
146 views

Given the context, what is the correct way to parse this sentence segment 次に訊くべき言葉が出てこない。?

この寒さをしのげそうな防寒服を手渡され、それを着込みながら僕は彼女に質問した。 「君は……」 [名前なら、ないわ] こちらから訊くより先に、低く呟くような声が返ってきた。 「呼びにくければアインと呼んで。 いつもそう呼ばれてたから」 質問の出鼻をくじかれ、次に訊くべき言葉が出てこない。 My western brain doesn't ...
Toyu_Frey's user avatar
  • 1,470
2 votes
2 answers
408 views

Are there any consistent rules as to how to distinguish words in Japanese?

I got involved with tokenization (mecab, kuromoji) and got confused as to what a "word" is in the Japanese language. Scenario 1: "たべません" analyzed by a tokenizer, outputs the following tokens: たべ ...
Wolf's user avatar
  • 275
1 vote
0 answers
124 views

How can I use the conditional ~ば and desiderative ~たい together?

I think the title is self-explanatory. I've been wondering how to combine the desiderative (たい) and the conditional (えば/たら). For example, if I want to say "Excuse me, what should I do if I want to ...
Milici's user avatar
  • 33
5 votes
1 answer
158 views

Are there any differences between 〜けらず and 〜ざりけり? Are they interchangeable?

Was ~ざりけり used in place of 〜けらず, for example in 知りけらず, to indicate the past tense in the negative form? Did 知らざりけり exist?
Tadataka's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
160 views

Elongated お in the volitional verb form

In native Japanese words (that I know of at least) like 通り and 大きい, to elongate the お-sound, another お is added when written in Hiragana (instead of う like in Sino-Japanese words). However, it just ...
Kaskade's user avatar
  • 1,587
0 votes
0 answers
234 views

出す as an auxiliary verb

It is my understanding that there are two different meanings when 出す is used as an auxiliary verb. One example being 走り出す meaning 'to start to run' and an example of the other being 生み出す meaning to '...
Caitlin's user avatar
  • 95
1 vote
2 answers
233 views

How did でしょうand だろう come to mean "probably"?

This is something I have been struggling with for long time. I don't see why, I don't understand how でしょう and だろう convey the meaning of "probably" as in sentences such as 雨が降るでしょう。It simply doesn't ...
Leafur's user avatar
  • 21
10 votes
2 answers
12k views

Auxiliary verbs in Japanese

What are auxiliary verbs in Japanese language? Which verbs are auxiliary and how to tell which are auxiliaries, and which are normal? It looks like the word です is an auxiliary verb. But why? What ...
Richard's user avatar
  • 341
2 votes
1 answer
448 views

clause ending ようで clarification

でも生徒同士で序列をつけるようで、こうした風習もどうもね…… 手はまったく届かなかったが願いは届いたようで、謎の生命体は翼をはためかせてメアの頭に着地した あいつの意見が正しかったことだけは認めざるを得ないようで、亮二もそれ以上食って掛かりはしなかった。 俺もノートに向かい続ける授業は苦手なようで、自然に体を動かす実技授業が多くなった I can't really ...
charu's user avatar
  • 2,560
1 vote
2 answers
431 views

What is the correct way to attach 〜そう to the start of a noun? [duplicate]

Take for example the following, よさそう which means (it) looks good. Is it possible for one to attach a 〜そう phrase to the start of a noun? Taking a good apple as an example sentence, are any of the ...
Tim F.'s user avatar
  • 644
0 votes
1 answer
172 views

What is the conjugation form, grammar of もうすぐ込んできそう ?

アナウンス:皆様、本日はご来場ありがとうございます。午前十時現在の各館の 混雑状況と催しものの お知らせをいたします。まず、ロボット館はただいま、 一時間待ちとなっております。ロボット館のレ ストランではロボットがランチ をお席までお運びをするサービスをしております。お昼近くになります と、さ らに混雑が見込まれます。次に、未来館は現在すぐにお入りいただけます。なお、 ...
JoisBack's user avatar
  • 723
1 vote
1 answer
230 views

Is ょう still one single word/助動詞 in the expression しましょう?

Kuromoji is a Japanese tokenizer. When using it on the expression しましょう, it gave the following analysis: Surface form Part-of-Speech Base form Reading Pronunciation し 動詞,自立,*,* ...
xji's user avatar
  • 358
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

受け身形, 使役形, and 使役受け身形: A side by side comparison practice

受け身形, 使役形, and 使役受け身形. These forms confuse me to no end. Therefore, I have done a sort of comparison practice using these forms side by side. Each sentence is followed by my translation, and then a ...
Yeti Ape's user avatar
  • 1,232
2 votes
1 answer
248 views

「〜すぎる」と「〜まくる」はどう違いますか。

question: Is there a difference in feeling for the words? Like すぎる feels more negative with an emphasis on disagreement with the action taken, while まくる is more about the amount? Examples I came ...
BelgianCoder's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
301 views

How to translate 'She was made to make him give me the book'?

How to translate 'She was made to make him give me the book'? (as in: 'someone made her make him give me the book.') Can I translate it to: Kanojo wa watasi-ni kare-ni hon-o kure-sase-sase-rare-ta. ...
Jo H's user avatar
  • 159
1 vote
1 answer
72 views

人間は普通ここに来れんのになあ I Know it means Humans Cannot Come here usually

人間は普通ここに来れんのになあ I Know it means Humans Cannot Come here usually. but doesn't 来られます Means can come Potential Form But 来れ Then ん Confuses me.
Brandon Fresh's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
177 views

verb-casual ような (possible translation)

東都大学の国際交流クラブでは、外国人と日本人が一緒に楽しめるような行事を企画したり紹介したりしている。 How should I translate this ような? The only possible translation to me is "in order that".. am I wrong?
Christine Lala's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
1k views

Difference between だと vs と before 認める

そのため、税務上の課税所得の計算は、「一般に公正妥当と認められる企業の基準」に基づく収益・費用の認識を原則としながらも、一定の調整を加えることとなっています。 I'm wondering what the difference is between 公正妥当と認められる and 公正妥当だと認められる
doru's user avatar
  • 107
3 votes
2 answers
679 views

Why 寝たよう instead of 寝そう in this example

I was going through a JLPT grammar practice book and am confused on a question: 「一郎、まだ起きているかな。」 「部屋の電気が消えているから、もう_____よ。」 I choose 寝そう since ~そう is often used to make conjectures based on visual ...
SpiritTamer's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
235 views

Grammar justification for 連用形 + 係助詞「は」+(ない・ある)

So recently I came across these two answers to two very interesting questions, and related: one and two. Both mention the following form: (連用形{れんようけい} of something) + (optional 係助詞{かかりじょし}) + (...
xTCx's user avatar
  • 398
4 votes
1 answer
288 views

What does 開けたかった mean?

From the novel The Old Man and the Sea. Japanese translation on Aozora: http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/001847/files/57347_57224.html 「食ったほうがいいか?」 「そう言ってるじゃないか」少年は優しく答えた。「サンチャゴの用意ができてから蓋を開けたかったんだ」 ...
his holiness's user avatar