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There are words, like 箱根関(はこねのせき), 伊勢国(いせのくに) or 加賀国(かがのくに)that despite being written without a particle の before 関 or 国 in the previous examples, this particle の is said when reading them because it exists an invisible particle の so that you must say it.

I'm sorry for explaning this in such an unpolished way, but because of that, my question is: how is called in Japanese grammar/linguistics this phenomenon of "the invisible の that is omitted when writing but not when saying"?

And do these words where this phenomenon occurs receive a name in Japanese?

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This is an obsolete convention which you will only find with relatively old place names (and occasionally surnames). Basically everyone is aware of this phenomenon, but I don't think there is a well-known name for it. I think it's because this is nothing more than an outdated convention rather than part of the modern standard grammar. Place names are always the source of unpredictable kanji readings, anyway. All we can do is to recognize this pattern and remember the reading of each phrase individually.

Sometimes, exact the same place name can be written with or without の. A well-known example would be 三ノ宮 vs 三宮:

Sannomiya Station (JR West)

All of the other transportation facilities in Sannomiya are written in Japanese as 三宮, without the Katakana character "ノ". Only JR includes it in the name, written as 三ノ宮駅. It is thought the reason it was included was to prevent people traveling from other parts of the country from misreading the name.

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  • Ok, I see. Thank you very much for explaining to me. :)
    – kanachan
    Commented Jun 12, 2023 at 21:43
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Maybe just orthographic variants? I think whether to have ノ/の in those words in written form is kind of arbitrary. In some words, the form without ノ was chosen to be the "correct" one, while in other words like 江ノ島 the form with it was.

Words that are not proper nouns are probably less standardized, and more than one variants are in use. すのこ ("duckboard") can be written both 簀の子 and 簀子.

By the way, ヶ for "ga" works similarly.

  • 霞ヶ関 (霞関)
  • 剣ヶ峰 (剣峰)
  • (世田ヶ谷) 世田谷

(I think the variants in parentheses are less common.)

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  • Ok, I see. Thank you very much for explaining to me. :)
    – kanachan
    Commented Jun 12, 2023 at 21:43

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