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I've been reading Yotsuba and in this part, when talking about these two sisters, Yotsuba asks: “追いかけてくる方か?強い方か?きれいじゃない方か?”. I'm assuming this is a way to say "The (qualifier) one", but I'm not finding anything directly explaining this on the internet lol

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You are correct in reading 方 as ほう. I am going only on what you've quoted in text in the question, but 方 here almost certainly definitely means "type" or "one," something chosen between options. The translation would be:

"The one who comes running to you? The strong one? or... do you mean the non-pretty one...?" (on that last part I am here reading into the possible emotions but believe this is probably what is going on, not knowing the source of what you are referencing)

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ほう's literal meaning is "direction", and it is used to turn things into options to choose from. For example, you can say to a child who doesn't want to get the vaccine shot:

病気にかかって苦しむ方がいいの?それとも今ちょっとちくっとするだけで、病気にかからないようにする方がいいの?

When used to refer to a person, it gets confusing because 方(かた) is also used to refer to a person (without making them into options). For example, you can say あの方は誰 and that usage doesn't imply they are an option. To my knowledge, 方(かた) as a way to refer to a person has also evolved from the original meaning of "direction".

You cannot use ほう in the same way as かた, i.e. a generic way to refer to a person. It can only be used when you are turning people into options.

Importantly, if you say 方(かた) to refer to a person, it's polite. Whereas if you say ほう then it's almost disrespectful (if you are e.g. 先輩 in a sports club situation then it might be acceptable). This is also why I can confidently say in this instance it must read ほう because the context is not a polite context.

If it's 外国の方ですか、それとも日本の方ですか then I would read it as かた as the polite context implies it's used as かた

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