Sometimes I see sentences and the words are just there, with no particles to link them, but the verbs are in ます form, which makes me think it is still a formal sentence. For example: 「私、毎朝10キロ走っています。」Is this formal? Are some particles omitted? Often times I see sentences such as this where words like 毎朝, 今日, etc, do not have particles.

So, my question is, what types of words must be linked with a particle, and what words do not in formal Japanese? Or, is it context dependent? Or is my understanding flawed and the above is not at all formal and all words must be linked with particles?

  • 2
    Basically it's the same thing with English nouns (every morning, today) used adverbially. It's not about politeness/formality. I suppose most are time expressions, but don't think it's possible to list all such nouns.
    – sundowner
    Apr 5, 2023 at 21:58

1 Answer 1


It's word-dependent. The formal version of that sentence is:


There must be は after 私. There must not be any particle after 毎朝. You can add を after 10キロ, but it's completely optional, and adding it does not make the sentence sound any more formal.

Many words work both as a noun/adjective and as an adverb. If you look up a word in a dictionary, you can see its part of speech like this:


Since 毎朝 is an adverb, you can use it without any particle.

The number of such words is large, and you basically have to remember them individually. But there are some tendencies.

  • Time-related words: 毎朝 (every morning), 昨日 (yesterday), 今日 (today), 明日 (tomorrow), 来年 (next year), 昨夜 (last night), 昔 (long time ago), 最近 (recently)
  • Quantity-related words: 10キロ, 3つ, 5回, 一部 (part; partly), 全部 (everything)
  • Suffixes such as くらい, 通り, ごろ
  • Others: 偶然, 大抵, 早速

Note that English is equally confusing. There are words that act both as both a noun and a verb (report, drink, increase), words that act both as an adjective and an adverb (fast, early, daily), words that act as a noun, an adjective and an adverb (most), and so on. Learners must look them up in a dictionary.

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