It's said that 一段 are called 一段 because they keep their stem, but is that really true?
Like, in 終止形, the verb has る, which is ウ段. And then, in 命令形, it has ろ, which is オ段.
How do you explain this?
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Its said that 一段 are called 一段 because they keep their stem.
You just answered your own question. 一段 verbs keep their stems intact, while the suffix change to reflect different conjugations. For example:
You can see how in each of these forms the stem 食べ never changes. Different endings are added, which happen to include る for dictionary form and ろ for imperative. For 五段, let's see a comparison:
While the stem itself is 歩き, the き could change to か き く け or こ depending on which 段 the conjugation needs to be in. There are five in total(かきくけこ) hence the name 五段 verbs.
dvx2718's answer should be canonical. I just add to clarify the point (I think) you are confused about.
Take 切る(五段) and 切れる(下一段) for examples.
In my understanding, 切り1/切れ1 are both masu-stem in learners' grammar. Note 切り1 of 切る is a conjugating part of 切る and 切れ1 is the NON-conjugating part of 切れる. This may well make you think that れる etc. is part of stem. But (at least in some contexts), this is not the case, as mentioned in this Wikipedia article (which should apply to 下一段 as well with obvious changes).
So the bolded る・る・れ・ろ in the following table is 語尾 (common to all Group 2 verbs), and not stem when you talk about 段. In this context 切れ is the only part called stem, hence the name ichidan.
Kind of related. I think there are vagueness/inconsistencies in terminology.