Suppose I want to say
"He was taken from us too soon."
Could I do this by using 早い->早すぎる->早すぎて and writing the sentence this way?
-過ぎて does not work adverbially like this. 過ぎる must attach the modified verb part.
Therefore, if you mean "He died too early" and want to use 過ぎる, the grammatically correct sentence is 彼は早く死に過ぎました, though this doesn't sound very polite. I think a natural option is 彼はあまりに早く私達を残してこの世を去りました or something. For this meaning, forget the verb 奪う.