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I am a total beginner in Japanese. If I were to translate it with the knowledge I have, it would be:

わたし の おとうさん と わたし の たんじょうび は [insert Japanese word for 'share'] です.

The setting would be as if I am talking to a stranger or discussing it in a more professional setting.

But, if you could also share how to say it informally, that would also be appreciated.

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You can (and should) simply use おなじ (同じ), which means "the same".

私のお父さんと私の誕生日は同じです。
わたしの おとうさんと わたしの たんじょうびは おなじです。

(Literally) My [birthday] and my father's birthday are the same.

Or you can say the following, too:

私と私のお父さんは誕生日が同じです。
わたしと わたしの おとうさんは たんじょうびが おなじです。

(Literally) As for me and my father, the birthday is the same.

In a very formal setting, replace おとうさん to ちち (父).

There is also a transitive verb 共有する【きょうゆうする】, meaning "to share", but it's a little difficult word in Japanese, and and it's primarily used in the sense that multiple people own or use the same tangible thing such as a PC or a room. It's seldom used in the context of two people having the same property.

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わたし の おとうさん と わたし の たんじょうび は 同じ/一緒/同一 です is acceptable.

同じ is the most common. You can use this almost in any situation.

一緒 may feels a little bit more casual though you can use it in almost in any situation.

同一 is a bit difficult word usually used when strictness is needed such as you explain machines' function. You would see the sentence above, in a math problem.

You can also say わたし の おとうさん の たんじょうび は わたし と 同じ/一緒/同一 です.

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