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I have been studying japanese for some time now (my level floating somewhere between beginner and intermediate), and the particle も has confused me.

I already know it works kind of like "too" or "also" Ex: 私も。「わたしも」== "Me too"

However, I've seen sentences where this meaning of "too" isn't present

Ex:
雨はもう3日「も」降っています

(It's been raining for nearly three days now)

Can someone give me a general overview of what も can represent, and in what contexts the meaning of it will change. Thank you.

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も is often glossed as "also, too, even".

Looking again at your sample sentence:

雨【あめ】はもう[3日]{みっか}[も]{●}降【ふ】っています

The も is used here as an intensifier, emphasizing that it's been three days. It might help to think of this more like:

It's already been raining for three days, even!

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