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一曲一曲心を込めて歌ってくれた。
一発一発殺意を込めて殴る

I interpret this as "hit after hit" and "song after song". Does this work with any 「一+助数詞」 repeated? Does it make the construction an adverb?

There's a song I like that says 「一分一秒が正念場」. Is it the same grammar?

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Does this work with any 一+名詞 repeated?

It works with most counters. The meaning depends on contexts, but generally it is one by one, one after another, each etc.

Does it make the construction an adverb?

I would say no. The 一N一N phrases behave just like numerical expressions, which are noun phrases that can work adverbially. You can see the following questions.

For example, 一曲一曲心をこめて歌う can be 一曲一曲心を込めて歌う, where 一曲一曲 behaves a noun phrase.

一分一秒. Is it the same grammar?

I would say it is the same usage, practically meaning every second. (一分一秒 is more idiomatic than 一分一分 or 一秒一秒.)

Note that there are a number of common 四字熟語 following the pattern 一N一N: 一期一会, 一進一退, etc. 一分一秒 could be considered just as an instance of the pattern as well.

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