I was reading the first text of Tobira's chapter 7 and I am not sure if I understand this segment:


My problem is with the latter part. I think it is saying this: "Tezuka established the manga as one of the ways of expressing stories like those of movies and novels".

Is it right? Is the それを referring to manga?

  • Did you read 小説や映画と同じような as modifying 物語, rather than 物語の表現方法?
    – aguijonazo
    Nov 16, 2022 at 20:32
  • @aguijizano well, now that you say that, I guess I did... Nov 16, 2022 at 22:03

1 Answer 1


Your interpretation is correct. 確立する is a transitive verb that takes a direct object. As you said, それを refers to manga: In the past, even in Japan, manga was thought to be for children, but Tezuka etablished it as a way of expressing stories, similar to novels and movies...

Here's a few other examples

ルネサンスは人間の尊厳を確立した。 The Renaissance established the dignity of man.

保安官は、その町の秩序を確立した。 The sheriff established order in the town.

See: Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

And: Particle を

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