In the sentence


Is で the て-form of だ? Or is it the で particle? In either case, wouldn't the clause before it (家に帰らない) need to be nominalized (の) in order for で to attach to it?


1 Answer 1


This is the grammar point meaning "without doing ~". It is constructed by using the plain-negative form of the verb (the ない form) and attaching the で particle to the end.


The literal translation of this example would be "Yesterday after class, without returning home, I went to see a movie."

Here are some more examples:

I always drink coffee without putting sugar in it.

She left without bringing an umbrella.

I came to work without eating breakfast.

I go to sleep without eating dinner.

Additional resources:

  • Literally speaking, do you know if で here has any relation to the particle で, or to the て-form of だ?
    – George
    Nov 3, 2022 at 19:48
  • 2
    Yes it's the で particle in the same manner as doing something "with" like ハンマーで板を叩く (I hit the board with a hammer). In these examples, you're doing something with the negation of the verb, i.e. "with not eating", or "with not going home".
    – blacktide
    Nov 3, 2022 at 20:36
  • 2
    @George - [補説] 「ないで」については、打消しの助動詞「ない」に、助詞「で」、あるいは断定の助動詞「だ」の連用形「で」が付いて成ったとする説などがあり、いまだ定説をみない。また、「ないで」全体を接続助詞などとする扱いもある。2は、「お母さん、もうどこにも行かないで」のように文末に用いられることもある。(here)
    – aguijonazo
    Nov 4, 2022 at 0:45

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