This is a passage of an article about corona virus. I want to know the function of these と particles.


I found a meaning that would fit this on weblio dicitionary, but there's no negation in this passage.

6 (数量を表す語に付き、打消しの表現を伴って)その範囲以上には出ない意を表す。…までも。「全部で一〇〇円—かからない」「一〇〇キロ—走らなかった」

I know it can be used in positive statements when using abstract numbers as it was discussed in this post: と after counting something

But in this case, isn't it a concrete number? Is it just a different way of emphasizing a quantity like 数字+も?

This question that was already done seems to summarize the "number+to" uses, but it uses the following explanation:

This is for showing a concrete figure before using an adjective like 大きい/短い/重い. Probably this is a kind of quotative-と. The number/amount can be big, small, or neither.

"Concrete figure" does not really tell me anything

  • 1
    But you are using the term "concrete number" yourself. I don't see why "concrete figure" in that explanation is causing you trouble.
    – aguijonazo
    Oct 28, 2022 at 2:34
  • I said "concrete" in the sense that it is not something like "thousands of X", "Hundreds of X", but actually concrete values like 10万人当たり約197人と. My main doubt is whether or not this grammar pattern has a meaning similar to までも.
    – Manab
    Oct 28, 2022 at 4:23
  • And "whether it is just "quoting concrete values" or actually emphasizing." as I asked below
    – Manab
    Oct 28, 2022 at 4:35

1 Answer 1


と in these sentences corresponds to the first bullet in my answer. It's for showing the actual, concrete number that supports expressions like 高い, 小さくなった and 1.35倍になった. I should have mentioned the use of this type of と is not limited to adjectives (I updated the answer in the linked question).

In your second sentence (which is simpler), the basic structure of that part is:


And "1.75倍と" has been added as a concrete number supporting 最も高い.

Likewise, in the first sentence, the base structure is:


And "直近1週間で10万人当たり約197人と" has been added as the actual number that supports the main predicate ("1.35倍になった"). In English, you may use parentheses like so:

The number of new cases nationwide was 1.35 times higher than the previous week (approx. 197 per 100,000 last week).

  • The thing is that my friend who is a Japanese native speaker explained me your sentences as ~アンケートの結果は(とてもいい)が15.2%しかなくてかなり少なかった and 今回のオリンピックの開催期間は二十二日間もあって長かった implying that it is similar to までも even when used with affirmative sentences. That's why I got a bit confused whether it is just "quoting concrete values" or actually emphasizing.
    – Manab
    Oct 28, 2022 at 4:16
  • Perhaps it has both meanings? I hope my question is clear now.
    – Manab
    Oct 28, 2022 at 4:28
  • 1
    @Manab No, this type of と is just plain "quoting". It does NOT imply the number is big or small on its own. That's why I intentionally included "23℃と暑くも寒くもなかった" as an example of this. For another example, you can say テストは83点と普通だった (My test score, which was 83, was fairly mediocre).
    – naruto
    Oct 28, 2022 at 5:26
  • Now I get It!!! Thanks. Can we say that it modifies the verb/adjective adverbially?
    – Manab
    Oct 28, 2022 at 5:33
  • 1
    @Manab Yes, it's adverbial in its broad sense.
    – naruto
    Oct 28, 2022 at 5:35

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