Sometimes I get confused on the frontier whether an expression is an adverb or not.

For instance, in
政府はワインに新しく税を課した。(=the government has imposed a new tax on wine)

新しく is considered an adverb (made from the adjective 新しい) although there is no clear reference in a dictionary as the word lost its radical from type transformation. Some would claim it's an adverbial expression.

As of まえのとおなじで which can be literally translated as "same way as before" and can be used before a verb, would you argue that this expression falls into the specs of an adverbial type?

1 Answer 1


The distinction between an adverbial expression and an adjectival expression is fairly strict and regular in Japanese. You can tell if a modifier is adverbial just by looking at its form. Here, 新しく is the ku-form (aka continuative form or 連用形) of 新しい, and it works as an adverb meaning "newly". The more literal translation of that sentence is "the government has newly imposed a tax on wine". Simply, 新しく, 赤く, 速く and so on modify verbs, while 新しい, 赤い, 速い and so on modify nouns.

で in まえのとおなじで can be either a case particle or the te-form of だ depending on how it's used in a sentence. If this で is a particle, then it works adverbially, i.e., it modifies a verb.

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