If I say:


It means I cannot participate after the 16th.

However, what about on the 16th? Is it also implied that I cannot participate on the 16th either? Or, that I can participate on the 16th, but not after?


1 Answer 1


Yes, it is inclusive. All the similar phrases that use 以 are inclusive: 以内、以前、以上、以下、以来. However, unfortunately a lot of people do not know this and use them carelessly without thinking.

If you wanted to express "After the 16th but not including it", you could say:


However, I would be more inclined to say:


  • I trust your answer. By the way how would you express "After the 16th but not including it" ?
    – wip
    Dec 4, 2012 at 5:45
  • 4
    In your particular example, you could say: 16日の翌日から参加できません。However, I would be more inclined to say 17日以降参加できません。
    – Jesse Good
    Dec 4, 2012 at 7:11
  • 1
    Another way to say “I cannot participate after Feb. 16, exclusive” is 16日までしか参加できません: “I can participate only until Feb. 16, inclusive.” Feb 11, 2013 at 2:19

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