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一人の人 A person that is alone. 人である人 A person that is alone.

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    人である人 never means a person that is alone. Did you mean 一人である人? It is still unidiomatic, though.
    – aguijonazo
    Oct 15, 2022 at 1:13
  • ah yes, mistyped it. still it was just an example so that someone wouldn't describe the entire etymology and usage of の.
    – K N
    Oct 15, 2022 at 7:53

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の is a very generic noun-linking particle, and AのB can be translated like "A's B", "B of A", "B as A", "B that is A" and so on (see this answer). On the other hand, AであるB basically only means "B that is A", so it is sometimes useful to avoid ambiguity. For example, 子供の先生 can possibly mean both "the child's teacher" or "a child teacher" (e.g., a 8-yo girl teaching math), whereas 子供である先生 only means "the teacher who is a child".

Besides, you may choose to use AであるB intentionally when you want to emphasize the "A = B" relationship. For example, while 緑のカップ is the ordinary way to say "a green cup", someone may intentionally say 緑であるカップ ("a cup that is green") when you want to emphasize the "green" part.

(By the way, 一人の人 typically just means "one person" or "an individual", although it can refer to "a lonely person" depending on the context. 一人である人 sounds a bit puzzling, but it might refer to "a person as an individual", "a person who is alone" or something. I used other examples because the story gets complicated when numbers are involved.)

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