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The potential and passive forms for ichidan verbs are the same. In the following sentence:

自由の本当の意味がわからなければ、自由を与えられるべきではない。

I initially read this as, "If you don't know the real meaning of freedom, you should not be given it."

However, I think that it can also be interpreted as, "If you don't know the real meaning of freedom, you should not have the ability to grant it (to others)."

Is this sentence actually ambiguous in meaning, or are there other parts of the sentence or grammar rules that I'm unaware of that make either meaning obviously incorrect?

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Yes, 与えられる can mean either "can give (something to someone)" or "is given (something by someone)", and this sentence is technically ambiguous. But if there is no other context, almost everyone would take it as passive voice, just as you did. This is because the implied subject of this sentence is "generic you" (or "one", "people"), who clearly doesn't have an privilege/ability to grant someone freedom.

In certain rare contexts (for example, when the implied subject is a selfish son of a king who is in charge of freeing prisoners), the other interpretation may be possible.

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