How to simply say "and" in Japanese, to coordinate two actions?

My question is divided into two sub-questions: coordination inside one sentence, and coordination between two sentences.

  • Coordination inside one sentence

For instance :

(1) I like to cook and to swim.

(2) Today, I went to the park and I studied in the library.

For (1), machine translation systems systematically give a sentence with the nominalization of the action words, linked by と.

For (2), these same MT systems systematically use the "て" form of one of the action verbs.

But I would like to make a sentence like : Pronoun + する + conjunction + する

Is there such a conjunction, and such a sentence pattern in Japanese?

  • Coordination between two sentences

What would be the grammatical word to coordinate two sentences such as:

I went to the park. Additionally, I studied in the library.

N.b.: Of course, the machine translation output are simply given as illustrations. Indeed, I did not encounter such kind of conjunction and sentence pattern in my (beginner/intermediate) practice of Japanese.

  • I don’t quite get what you are asking. Connecting with a て-form is one “simple” way. Why would you insist on using a dictionary form, if that’s what you mean by Pronoun + する + conjunction + する?
    – aguijonazo
    Sep 7, 2022 at 7:07
  • Because I think it is easier to have two dictionary forms with a simple conjunction word in between
    – Starckman
    Sep 7, 2022 at 7:26
  • You could do that but your Japanese will sound broken (if you do that inside one sentence).
    – aguijonazo
    Sep 7, 2022 at 7:42
  • What would be the conjunction word then?
    – Starckman
    Sep 7, 2022 at 7:47

1 Answer 1


Question 1: ("I like to X and Y", in one sentence)


You might not want nominalization, but I don't think you can get around it in this case. If you want to make it shorter, you can use nouns instead of nominalized verbs. 私は料理して泳ぐことが好きだ would not be what you want to say - it sounds more like you like to cook while swimming.

Question 2: ("I did X and Y", in two sentences)


The first option seems closest to "additionally", although the word you need to use doesn't come at the beginning of the second sentence. The last two options imply chronological order.

  • How would we say "I went to the park and studied in the library" without implying a chronological order between the two actions (I simply did these two actions today, no matter in which chronological order)?
    – Starckman
    Sep 7, 2022 at 9:10
  • That would be the first option, like 図書館で勉強もした. Sep 7, 2022 at 9:54
  • I meant, is it possible to say "I went to the park and studied in the library." without implying a chronological order between the two actions in one same sentence only?
    – Starckman
    Sep 7, 2022 at 9:58
  • 1
    I think て-form is as neutral as "and" in that case. Sep 7, 2022 at 10:44
  • Understood, thank you
    – Starckman
    Sep 7, 2022 at 13:38

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