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宿題をやってこなかったですか?

It's something like "Have you ended up not doing the homework?", I think, but what's the difference with just やらなかった?

What kind of てくる is this? Is it the same of 寒くなってくる?

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It's just "and (then) come (here)". Only doing the homework is not enough; you have to bring the result (a notebook, etc) to the classroom.

English speakers may think this type of てくる is unnecessary, but it's important in Japanese. You probably know "to hold" is 持つ and "to bring" is either 持ってくる (literally "to hold and come") or 持っていく ("to hold and go") in Japanese, right? Likewise, you can say 宿題をやる when it's only about doing the homework, but you usually have to say 宿題をやってくる when it's said in a classroom. Even English speakers must distinguish "to hold" and "to bring" appropriately, so let's think of this as an extension of it.

Similar examples where てくる is almost mandatory:

  • 買い物に行ってきます。
    I'll go shopping (and bring things home).
  • 庭の様子を見てきます。
    I'll go check on the garden (and bring useful information here).
  • 窓を閉めてきます。
    I'll close the windows (and come back here soon).

寒くなってくる describes a gradual temporal change, which is another important function of てくる but is not directly related to the sentence in question.

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  • Shouldn't やる be the negative one though? Like やらなくてきました... I didn't understand because of こなかった. It sounds like the teacher is asking if the students did the homework and then didn't come, not the opposite. Like "Didn't you come after doing the homework?"... Jul 7, 2022 at 3:31
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    @Haragurodanshi Please read my answer here: japanese.stackexchange.com/q/30515/5010 (Also note that やらなくてくる is ungrammatical and you have to say やらないでくる instead. Related: japanese.stackexchange.com/q/5925/5010)
    – naruto
    Jul 7, 2022 at 3:34
  • Then, if I replace やってこなかった with やらないできた, is it the same? Jul 7, 2022 at 3:41
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    @Haragurodanshi Yes, a teacher may say both 宿題をやってこなかったんですか and 宿題をやらないで来たんですか. They are roughly the same, but the latter is more like "You came to school without finishing the homework?", so it may sound more accusatory.
    – naruto
    Jul 7, 2022 at 3:46
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    @Haragurodanshi Honestly, I cannot think of such a situation for now. I may be able to come up with an example if I try hard, though. (Well, must as in "You must be hungry" and must as in "You must be brave" look the same, but you don't think that's a big problem of English, right? It's the same.)
    – naruto
    Jul 8, 2022 at 2:06

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