は is typically used to mark something already in context as the topic. Would that be equivalent to "The dog died" since "The" typically marks something know?
が is a bit more confusing for me. Would it be more accurate to translate this to "A dog died"? I've also heard が is used to speak about things you currently witness. So I feel like in this regard it can also mean "The dog died".
Can anyone clarify how to translate sentences like the above where only the particle differs?