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I've only heard it - with its apparent use in this case - in phrases about knowledge specific to someone or something, as in:

かみのみぞしるあめのみぞしる。

I would normally - with my low-level understanding of Japanese - use を and say for example:

それはかみのみをしること。

I've not found any info on Google. What is the function of ぞ and where else can it be used?

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Nobody uses it now, because it is a piece of grammar from classical Japanese. The final particle ぞ is a descendant of it, and otherwise only remains in sporadic idioms: ~のみぞ知る, どうぞ, これぞ, よくぞ, 何するものぞ etc.

By the way, its meaning is not related to を. In old Japanese they don't have consistent nominative or accusative markers, so it could be a subject or an object.

かみのみぞしる
It is only god(s) that knows.

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