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The sentence

精神的にくるものあるよ

is translated in the subtitles as "She's totally killing my vibe".

I don't understand how that meaning comes from 精神的 (which is just "mental / spiritual state"), and くる.

Maybe it's the same as 精神的に参る ("She's wearing me out"), based on the meaning of 参る "becoming exhausted"? If so, I don't understand why 参る can be replaced by くる (while they both mean "come", I don't think they share the other meanings such as "getting exhausted").

In addition, I don't understand what ある is doing here.

もの is presumably just expressing dissatisfaction (もん / もの) but having trouble with the rest of the sentence I'm not even sure about that.

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You are close, but the 参る is not a replacement for くる in the phrase.

The difference is that the subject of 精神的に参る is the person who gets affected, and that of 来る is what affects someone. In the case in question, the subject is もの = a thing.

So 精神的にくるものがある literally means there is a thing that comes (to me) mentally. 精神的にくる is more or less a set phrase that means to affect (somebody) mentally in the negative way or simply to discourage, to dishearten. It is a bit similar to 傷つく, but 精神的にくる is like saying "got hurt" as a joke. For example, おじさんと言われると精神的にくるものがある : Being called a おじさん hurts me....


Similar usage of くる:

  • ぐっとくる : to be attracted, to be moved (emotionally)
  • びびっとくる : to get inspired, to fall in love at first sight
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  • Why is ある appropriate? We already know that this もの exists (since もの must refer to something introduced earlier). We're just describing it here by clarifying that it causes a mental discomfort. So why is it not 精神的にくるものだよ?
    – max
    Jun 4 at 21:32
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    @max I think ものがある is a way of emphasizing. A similar usage is 思うところがある. Or くるものがある can be regarded as a pattern. The ものがある is optional: 精神的にくる is ok. E.g. 精神的にくるからやめて = It hurts me, stop it.
    – sundowner
    Jun 4 at 21:43

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