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恐るべき 事態に なりうるがため、 子細を 伝えることはできぬ。

The context is that I'm talking to a wizard in the game who happens to know something about my future.

Currently, I am trying to figure the exact construction/meaning of なりうるがため and so I far can guess that the sentence means something like I can't tell you the circumstances of your future, otherwise an awful event might happen.

But I can't wrap my head around what なりうるがため exactly is in it's construction.

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なりうる is just a compound of なる "become" + 得{う}る "to be possible".

〜がため(に) is an archaic expression meaning "for the reason of X". が in Classical Japanese had a possessive sense (similar to の in the modern language). The normal translation into Japanese of the title of Hemingway's book "For Whom The Bell Tolls" is 誰{た}がために鐘は鳴る, showing the same construction.

So the meaning of 恐るべき事態になりうるがため is "since it could lead to a frightful situation", with an archaic nuance. This nuance would certainly fit with the character of a wizard making a portentous announcement.

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    Grammar note: In Classical Japanese, using が like this with a verb or verb phrase requires that the verb be in the 連体形【れんたいけい】 or adnominal conjugation. The Classical 終止形【しゅうしけい】 (terminal form, a.k.a. dictionary form) of this auxiliary verb is 得【う】, and the Classical 連体形【れんたいけい】 is 得【う】る. May 19 at 20:08

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