@naruto said it excellently. I might put it more simply as the difference between:
- telling someone not to do something either right now or in the near future
- similar, but referring to whatever has just now occurred / is going on now
Also, to state the obvious, never ever use this expression in real life unless you want to sound very hostile beyond blunt.
You should also learn, while you're at it, to use "じゃないよ" instead of "じゃねえよ", in case you want to sound blunt and slightly careless just like from the book.
- 「なに、万引きしてきただって？馬鹿やってんじゃないよ!」(recent past)
In such cases, it covers "current events" "future events." It also allows the speaker to handle "recent past events" by making remarks on them right now, using the expression.