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Why do we say 高血圧人 but 肺の病気がある人?

高血圧がある人 would be unnatural, would it?

If we are to use がある for people with a particular disease (which high blood pressure is not), why are AIDSの人 and 糖尿病の人 ok but not AIDSがある人 and not 糖尿病がある人?

Perhaps, it’s about a disease name… if there’s the name of a condition mentioned, then がある will not work… Does that make sense?

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It is because 高血圧 is not a disease for which physical presence is felt. As you guess, 高血圧があるひと is not natural but not impossible. For comparison,

  • がんのあるひと is acceptable
  • 腫瘍がある人 is quite normal
  • 風邪のある人 is impossible
  • 咳のある人 is acceptable

I suppose 肺の病気の人 is avoided in order not to use の-phrases consecutively. 病気の人 is normal for a sick person while 病気がある人 is basically the same but sounds more like a person with particular (persistent) diseases.

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肺の病気の人 is natural. There is a difference I can think of though.

私は病気だ is a quality of 私.

私は肺の病気だ has a different meaning, here you are specifying what kind of disease it is. (It's a lung disease for me)

肺の can't modify "病気だ" because it acts like a verb.

Similarly

◎私は花粉症です

○私は花粉症があります

◎私は花粉のアレルギーがあります

✕私は花粉のアレルギーです this means something else again

の can acomodate for both though, and I think the unnaturalness is just a tendency of English speakers to avoid repetition.

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