I recently learnt the contrastive usages of the は particle and I read the Tofogu article which has an interesting section which says I can use は contrast marker with the adjectives/nouns positive and negative form. But the article is not detailed enough for me to understand exactly what's going on. Here are some example:
positive form pattern: く-form of い-adjective + は + ある
negative form pattern: く-form of い-adjective + は + ない / ありません
negative form pattern: noun + では + ない / ありません
My first questions are:
- What is the positive form in the case of な-adjective/noun? Something like that: noun + は + ある?
- Can the word with くはある / くはない only be in the end of the sentence/subsentence? So is the following sentence incorrect?:
Currently I interpret this は usage in the following way based on these examples and the article:
The は particle (in these cases) expresses: the statement does not 100% cover the situation/speaker's opinion because there is something else too. The difference between positive and the negative form is the following:
- When the positive form (くはある) has been used then we express the statement covers between 50 and 100% the situation/speaker's opinion.
- When the negative form (くはない) has been used then we express the statement covers between 0 and 50% the situation/speaker's opinion.
So my next question:
- Is my interpretation correct?
Because I'm not sure. Here one answer under the Why does 悪く(は)ない give a condescending feeling? question says:
When native speakers such as myself say 「悪く(は)ない。」, they often imply that the object of the discussion is not too good. ... English-speakers seemed to often say "not bad" in situations where they clearly meant to say "pretty good". I am not saying that this usage of 「悪く(は)ない」 never occurs in Japanese, but I can assure you that it is rarer in Japanese.
Which is contrary to my conclusion. Because the common interpretation of「悪く(は)ない」is mostly (50%-100%) bad and not lessly (0%-50%) bad. So:
- Is the「悪く(は)ない」 an exception when we interpret くはない? If not then what is the differences between くはある and くはない?