What is the difference between 相応, 相当, 適当 and 適切? All of them have the meaning suitable/appropriate but what is the difference and when do I use each of them?

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適切 is formal and means the action or the thing addresses the situation well. Examples are 適切な対応、適切な額、etc.

適当 can be used in a similar manner to 適切, but the "quality" of the action or thing could be lower than 適切. E.g. one can say 「適切な対応とまでは言えないが、適当な対応をしたといえる」but not「適当な対応とまでは言えないが、適切な対応をしたといえる」because 適切な対応 implies a slightly higher quality. Importantly, 適当 can also be used in a different meaning (sometimes written as テキトー) in which case it means "sloppy", "halfhearted" etc.

相応 can imply even lower quality, and means more like "matches the situation" or "can satisfy the requirement". E.g. if someone says 相応の対応をしなさい, then it can mean "do the minimum appropriate". However the emphasis is on the "matching" part. Hence, if the corresponding whatever thing has a high quality, then the matching 相応な thing will also have a high quality (e.g. 事業部長の身分に相応な待遇で迎えねば).

相当 has a slightly different flavor and it means "equivalent". E.g. コウモリの皮膜は鳥の羽に相当する。You can't say 相当な対応 for example. Importantly, it can also be used to mean "considerable amount of", e.g. 相当な数の人がいる

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