I found this very interesting older post and there are couple of things I am uncertain about.

Could I also technically write "ロックしたSIM/ロックしているSIM" to mean "ロックされたSIM/ ロックされているSIM", if there is no presence of an overt actor implied from context?

Because if this following sentence is correct "ゆでた卵", and can mean both "an egg that was boiled", and "a boiled egg", ゆでる is a transitive verb and so is ロックする (which might as well be intransitive in some cases, the same way like for example the verb 再起動する, but dictionaries do not seem to feature this information for foreign nouns taking on suru endings), I honestly see no reason for why "ロックしたSIM/ロックしているSIM" would be considered grammatically incorrect, maybe unnatural I suppose.

I though maybe these suru verbs were more likely to be written as された/されている, until I have seen this following sentence in my iPhone: (reffering to 最大容量)これは新品時と比較したバッテリー容量の基準です。My translation: "standard of battery capacity compared to the new model." If I were to write such sentence with my not very good knowledge of Japanese, I would most definitely write "比較された", but I obviously cannot tell, whether it sounds good or not. I think I could also write 比較している. Please, correct me, in case I am wrong (which I definitely am).

*Sorry for the edit, but after thinking a bit more about this sentence, I actually do not understand the purpose of the と particle as well. I know it is used in comparisons, but do not understand how exactly. I guess the sentence needs to somehow get rewritten, so I could see how the particle works.


2 Answers 2


比較する is not an action with a lasting effect on its target. Therefore, its ている-form, 比較している, doesn’t describe a resultant state but an ongoing process (if not an experience). When you say 比較したX with X being an object of comparison, you are not talking about a current state of X or a property newly assumed by X as a result of an action or change, as would be the case with ゆでた卵, 結んだ糸, etc. It simply means X has undergone the act of comparison, and this necessarily means a different thing than 比較しているX, which means the process is ongoing. In that sense, it is similar to 走ったX where X is a route traversed.

The passive form, 比較される, is normally used to convey a sense of suffering on the part of the subject (i.e. the object of the active 比較する).


比較されたバッテリー容量 sounds as odd as 走られた道.

It all depends on the verb.


Generally speaking, 保存したファイル ("file that someone saved") and 保存されたファイル ("file that was saved") are usually interchangeable, and so are ゆでた卵 and ゆでれられた卵. See Passive vs Active form of verbs when used as adjectives and Why 無茶ぶりした and not 無茶ぶりされた

However, ロックしたSIM ("SIM that someone locked") sounds puzzling to me because it implies there is some actor who did the locking. If I understand correctly, locked SIM cards are made in a locked state from the beginning during the manufacturing process, and there is no such a process of someone locking it. In such cases, ロックされたSIM is the only natural option. On the other hand, unlocking a SIM is a common process performed by a human. Therefore, アンロックしたSIM, アンロックされたSIM, ロック解除したSIM and ロック解除されたSIM all sound correct to me, and they are usually interchangeable.

For this と, see my previous answer.

  • Thank you very much for your answer! I thought it was the “and” と and therefore did not understand it. But I still cannot figure out why 比較した was chosen in that sentence, instead of 比較された. Also, when someone says, for example 結んだ糸, would you interpret it as “tied thread”, or “a thread someone not mentioned tied”, because in that case “比較した” could imply both possibilities, depending on context of course. Commented Jan 4, 2022 at 7:23

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