1

My dictionary gives me "ability, aptness, suitability" for 適性 but I don't understand and I didn't find many example sentences.

Does it mean the ability of someone or something to adapt to a situation?

I feel like it's completely different from 能力 but I'm not sure.

2

適性 is close to suitability or aptitude. 適性 is related to someone's learning speed or future potential rather than their current ability. Someone who has a 適性 for something is not necessarily good at it now, but they are easier to be good at it in the future.

  • おしゃべりな人は営業職への適性がある。
    Talkative people have an aptitude for a sales position.
  • 人には適性というものがある。
    = 人には向き不向きがある。
    Different people are cut out for different things.

才能 ("talent") can also refer to someone's future potential, but it is a bigger word that tends to refer to rare and great abilities. For example, プログラマの適性がある人 reminds me of someone with above-average analytical skills, patience, curiosity and such, whereas プログラマの才能がある人 is someone who has everything to be a super hacker.

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