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While playing a game, one of the characters said (the text is in English and the voice is in Japanese):

  • 君はずっと働きずめだったから、今日はもう寝な。

My conjecture is that the correct written form is 働きずめ, but is that correct? Is it 働きづめ or 働きずめ? Moreover, are there any other words constructed with that same suffix?

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No, it's not correct.

When you break that down, it's 働{はたら}き+詰{つ}め. So, it must be with つ+濁点{だくてん}(゛) - づ.

The method is called 連濁{れんだく}. I'll leave the explain to wikipedia and question/answer that I linked in comment at OP.

There's much more like this one, such as:

  • 生{い}き辛{づら}い = 生{い}きる+辛{つら}い
  • 磯釣{いそづ}り = 磯{いそ}+釣{つ}り
  • 折{お}り鶴{づる} = 折{お}り+鶴{つる}
  • 寿司詰{すしづ}め = 寿司{すし}+詰{づ}め
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    Okay, now I know it's spelled as 働きづめ, thanks. But 連濁 was not my point. What I asked would be, then, if there are any other words of the form V + 詰め. Aug 30 at 23:25
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    @ElizabethMiddleford The examples in this link are all づめ. As a post-masu-stem suffix, 働きづめ should be the most common, but it can attach to a few other verbs.
    – naruto
    Aug 31 at 0:43
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    「さしずめ」(差し詰め) may be special, being an established adverb, perhaps?
    – Chocolate
    Aug 31 at 0:45
  • @Chocolate According to goo ずめ/づめ they both are fine I think? Still, most of time we write that in hiragana, and I think I've never seen さしずめ written as さしづめ except dictionary/old article, so...
    – Skye-AT
    Aug 31 at 1:15
  • According to this, the distinctions are ultimately fuzzy. 現代仮名遣いでは、複合語であるなどの語源意識が残っており、「ち」「つ」などから生じたことが明らかである場合に「ぢ」「づ」を用いることになっているが、語源意識が残っているかどうかを客観的に定めることは難しく、どうしても主観的にならざるを得ない(中略)「現代仮名遣い」では、「世界中」「稲妻」などの一部の語は、「じ」「ず」で書くことを本則とし、「ぢ」「づ」で書くことも許容するという方針が打ち出された
    – sundowner
    Aug 31 at 3:34

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