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Some of the examples that appear in jisho.org are:

  • 渡米: Going to the United States
  • 渡印: Going to India
  • 渡英: Going to the UK

However, if I want to say 'Going to Afghanistan', can I say "渡亜"?

3

You can use 渡○ as long as the country name has a single kanji abbreviation. But since 渡○ has a connotation that you have some business to do there, how often you hear each instance may vary.

Roughly all Western European and Asia-Pacific countries are fit for this expression, and travel information websites use it more frequently for relatively minor countries when it has a distinct kanji, since visitors already share the context. For some cases like 渡伯 (Brasil) is also common because the country has historical relationship with Japan. If you are a non-Japan resident, you can use 渡日 as well.

The "distinct kanji" is an important point; a lot of country names start from A-, and your Afghanistan has not gained enough notability to have an otherwise identifiable kanji (if did, it'd be taken from latter syllables like America (米) was). So, 渡亜 is very unlikely to be understood as "going to Afghanistan".

PS
A good summary of "notable" country kanji is here. I basically has few things to add, but there are some irregular cases, such as 渡パ (Pakistan) is sometimes seen as パ has been extensively used as one-character abbreviation of it.

3

I've never heard of 渡亜 and 渡印(or at least as far as I can recall). I believe that it's (almost) only used with 渡米, 渡英 and 渡欧(Going to Europe).

Perhaps it may be used in very formal situations, but so far I have not heard of it in my life.

For 渡亜, people may get confused with Asia(亜細亜), so I doubt there's a word for it.

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