I found three ways to say "If I'm too exposed to the sun, I get a headache". Can you confirm that these three sentences are right? And if there are some nuances between them?
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First and second way looks fine but third one seems to be a bit weird for me.
As a Japanese perspective, there's no different between them, it's just another way to say that.
It could be improved though, since original sentence has "I", so: "私は太陽の光を浴びすぎると頭が痛くなります" for formal way, or
"(insert your favorite first-person word like 僕 or 私 or 俺)、太陽を浴びすぎると頭が痛くなるんだよね" for more casual way.
The first two are fine, but the third sounds slightly awkward to me. The verb 受ける goes better with 日光 or 直射日光 than 太陽. Although 太陽を受ける is used with the same meaning as (直射) 日光を受ける, it takes on a slight poetic sound when used for a person. It brings an image of someone facing the sun with their arms wide open.
Both 日光 and 直射日光 would work fine with the first two sentences, as well. There is also 太陽光, but it sounds more scientific than 日光 or 直射日光.